Thanks are due to many people for many kinds of help in drafting this Consumers Union Report.

My first and greatest debt is to the late Dr. Charles E. Terry and his associate, Mildred Pellens. In 1969, shortly after starting work on this Report, I stumbled on their 1,04°-page classic, T11e Opium Problem (1998)—and I felt as the young poet Keats felt when he first stumbled upon the lliad and Odyssey. Terry and Pellens demonstrated that sense can be made of the drug scene only in a historical setting. We cannot approach today’s heroin problem with insight so long as we blind ourselves to the altogether different nature of the opiate problem in the nineteenth century. Some knowledge of the bohemian scene of the 1890s and the Greenwich Village scene of the 1970s is almost a prerequisite for understanding the Haight-Ashbury scene of the 1960s. The historical perspective of this Report, no doubt its salient characteristic, is owed to Terry and Pellens.

As the preliminary draft of this book was nearing completion in April 1970, I enjoyed a, second similar insight. My task at the moment was to make the youth drug scene, and the value system of the scene’s participants, understandable and believable to older readers. As I wrestled with that task, the Canadian Government’s Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs, popularly known as the Le Dain Commission, issued its 1970 Interim Report. My immediate problem and several others were thereby resolved; and I was heartened to learn that a number of the conclusions I had been reaching independently closely paralleled those of the Interim Report. Readers of Parts VIII and IX of this book will find my indebtedness to the commission apparent and acknowledged on many pages.

At various stages, preliminary drafts of chapters of this book were circulated to authorities directly concerned with each chapter—in most cases the men and women whose work was reviewed in that chapter. Their comments, corrections, and suggestions proved most helpful in preparing the final draft. While none of them is responsible for any of the views here expressed, to them belongs the credit for the deletion of many doubtful passages. For helping me to avoid numerous errors, and in many cases for wise counsel as well, let me thank the following:


Virginia Apgar, M.D. Mitchell B. Balter, Ph.D. Herbert Benson, M.D. Thomas H. Bewley, M.D. Judge Andrew Bucaro Charles E. Cherubin, M.D. Emmett P. Davis, M.D. Vincent P. Dole, M.D. Joel Fort, M.D. Daniel X. Freedman, M.D. Frances R. Gearing, M.D. Avram Goldstein, M.D. Samuel Irwin, Ph.D. Harris Isbell, M.D. Jerome H. Jaffe, M.D. Lissy F. Jarvik, M.D. Murray Jarvik, M.D. Rufus King, E:sq. John C. Kramer, M.D. Alfred R. Lindesmith. Ph.D:

Robert A. Maslansky, At.D. Charles Medawar Glen D. Mellinger, Ph.D. Helen H. Nowlis, Ph.D. Vincent Nowlis, Ph.D. Marie E. Nyswander, lst.D. John A. O'Donncll, Ph.D. Hugh J. Parrv, Ph.D. Edward A. Preble, Ph.D. Ingemar Rexed, Esq. Richard Evans Schultes, Ph.D. Roger C. Smith, Ph.D. Ralph M. Susman, Ph.D. Silvan S. Tomkins, Ph.D. Henry L. Verhulst Stephen Waldron, Ph.D. Robert C. Wallach A1.D. Irene Wasko~s, Ph.D. Andrew T. Weil, M.D. H. R. Williams, M.D.

James R. Gamage and Edmund L. Zerkin of STASH—the Student Association for the Study of Hallucinogens, Beloit, Wisconsin greatly facilitated my marijuana research, and the research of countless others, through their Comprehensive Guide to the English-Language Literature on Cannabis and through their courtesy in supplying the texts of rare materials abstracted in the Comprehensive Guide. The chapters on methadone in this Report have been enriched by the proceedings of three National Conferences on Methadone Treatment sponsored by NAPAN— the National Association for the Prevention of Addiction to Narcotics.

Jonathan Leff, Director of Special Publications at Consumers Union, was a bulwark of strength throughout the years of work on this Report; and was a collaborator as well as editor during the final months.

Sharon Hammer Sigman prepared and verified the references and brought order out of chaos.

Irene Dee patiently typed and retyped the manuscript, time after time, month after month, year after year.

The rich resources of the Yale University Library, Yale Medical Library, and Yale Medical Historical Library, and the competence and helpfulness of their staffs, made this project feasible.

The staff of the Consumers Union Library proved adept and cooperative in promptly securing materials unavailable even at the Yale Libraries.


Other Consumers Union staff members were also very generous with their help.


Yelping Hill

West Cornwall, Connecticut