REPORT OF THE SENATE SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON ILLEGAL DRUGS: CANNABIS - 454 - Geneva Convention was maintained. Parties were required to license all manufacturers, traders  and  distributors,  and  all  transactions  involving  drugs  had  to  be  documented.55 The Single Convention built on the trend of requiring Parties to develop increasingly punitive  criminal  legislation.  Subject  to  their  constitutional  limitations,  Parties  were  to adopt  distinct  criminal  offences,  punishable  preferably  by  imprisonment,  for  each  of the  following  drug-related  activities  in  contravention  of  the  Convention:  cultivation, production, manufacture, extraction, preparation, possession, offering, offering for sale, distribution,  purchase,  sale,  delivery  on  any  terms  whatsoever,  brokerage,  dispatch, dispatch in transit, transport, importation and exportation.56 Furthermore, the granting of extradition was described as desirable.57    The  Convention  assigned  substances to one of four schedules based on level of control. Schedules I and IV were the most stringent and covered primarily raw organic materials  (opium,  coca,  cannabis)  and  their  derivatives,  such  as  heroin  and  cocaine. Schedules  II  and  III  were  less  strict  and  contained  primarily  codeine-based synthetic drugs. At the U.S.s insistence, cannabis was placed under the heaviest control regime in the  Convention,  Schedule IV.  This  regime  included  drugs  such  as  heroin  (the  WHO considered  any  medical  use  of  heroin  to  be  obsolete).  The  argument  for  placing cannabis  in  this  category  was  that  it  was  widely  abused.  The  WHO  later  found  that cannabis could have medical applications after all, but the structure was already in place and no international action has since been taken to correct this anomaly. The  U.S.  was  pleased  with  the  Single  Convention  as  it  broadened  control  over cultivation  of  the  opium  poppy,  coca  bush  and  cannabis  plant,  though  the  measures were   not   as   stringent   as   the   ones   Anslinger   had   negotiated   in   the   1953   Opium Protocol.58 Articles 23 and 24 of the Convention set up national opium monopolies and put very strict limitations on international trade in opium. Article  49  of  the  Convention  required  Parties  to  completely  eliminate  all  quasi- medical use of opium,59 opium smoking, coca leaf chewing, and non-medical cannabis use  within  25  years  of  the  coming  into  force  of  the  Convention.  All  production  or manufacture  of  these  drugs  was  also  to  be  eradicated  within  the  same  period.  Only Parties   for   which   such   uses   were   traditional   could   take   advantage   of   delayed implementation;   for   others,   prohibition   was   immediate.   Since   the   implementation period ended in 1989, these practices are today fully prohibited, and the drugs may be used only for regulated medical and scientific purposes. Apart from consolidating the previous treaties and expanding control provisions, the  Single  Convention  also  streamlined  the  UNs  drug-related supervisory bodies. The PCOB  and  the  DSB  were  merged  in  a  new  body,  the  International  Narcotics Control Board    (INCB),    responsible    for    monitoring    application    of    the    Convention    and                                                  55   Ibid., Articles 21 and 29-32. 56   Ibid., Article 36. 57   Ibid., Article 36(2). 58   Single Convention, Articles 22-28. 59   The limit was 15 years for the quasi-medical use of opium.