REPORT OF THE SENATE SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON ILLEGAL DRUGS: CANNABIS - 454 - Geneva Convention was maintained. Parties were required to license all manufacturers, traders and distributors, and all transactions involving drugs had to be documented.55 The Single Convention built on the trend of requiring Parties to develop increasingly punitive criminal legislation. Subject to their constitutional limitations, Parties were to adopt distinct criminal offences, punishable preferably by imprisonment, for each of the following drug-related activities in contravention of the Convention: cultivation, production, manufacture, extraction, preparation, possession, offering, offering for sale, distribution, purchase, sale, delivery on any terms whatsoever, brokerage, dispatch, dispatch in transit, transport, importation and exportation.56 Furthermore, the granting of extradition was described as desirable.57 The Convention assigned substances to one of four schedules based on level of control. Schedules I and IV were the most stringent and covered primarily raw organic materials (opium, coca, cannabis) and their derivatives, such as heroin and cocaine. Schedules II and III were less strict and contained primarily codeine-based synthetic drugs. At the U.S.s insistence, cannabis was placed under the heaviest control regime in the Convention, Schedule IV. This regime included drugs such as heroin (the WHO considered any medical use of heroin to be obsolete). The argument for placing cannabis in this category was that it was widely abused. The WHO later found that cannabis could have medical applications after all, but the structure was already in place and no international action has since been taken to correct this anomaly. The U.S. was pleased with the Single Convention as it broadened control over cultivation of the opium poppy, coca bush and cannabis plant, though the measures were not as stringent as the ones Anslinger had negotiated in the 1953 Opium Protocol.58 Articles 23 and 24 of the Convention set up national opium monopolies and put very strict limitations on international trade in opium. Article 49 of the Convention required Parties to completely eliminate all quasi- medical use of opium,59 opium smoking, coca leaf chewing, and non-medical cannabis use within 25 years of the coming into force of the Convention. All production or manufacture of these drugs was also to be eradicated within the same period. Only Parties for which such uses were traditional could take advantage of delayed implementation; for others, prohibition was immediate. Since the implementation period ended in 1989, these practices are today fully prohibited, and the drugs may be used only for regulated medical and scientific purposes. Apart from consolidating the previous treaties and expanding control provisions, the Single Convention also streamlined the UNs drug-related supervisory bodies. The PCOB and the DSB were merged in a new body, the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), responsible for monitoring application of the Convention and 55 Ibid., Articles 21 and 29-32. 56 Ibid., Article 36. 57 Ibid., Article 36(2). 58 Single Convention, Articles 22-28. 59 The limit was 15 years for the quasi-medical use of opium.