WAYS OF USING: FUNCTIONAL INJECTING DRUG USERS
R.Sharp, M. Davis, G.W. Dowsett, Susan Kippax, K. Hewitt, S. Morgan & W. Robertson

Project Steering Committee:
Associate Professor Rachel Sharp, Associate Professor Susan Kippax, Mr Gary Dowsett (Research Fellow in Sociology), Mr Mark Davis (Research Assistant) & Mr Gray Sattler, Policy Analyst, AIDS Bureau, NSW Department of Health.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Study.
The Functional Drug User.
The Social and Interpersonal Context.
Control and Ritual.
Illegality and Stigma.
Recommendations.

SECTION ONE - INTRODUCTION
Choosing an Appropriate Research Method.
Sample and Method.
References.

SECTION TWO-A - THE FUNCTIONAL DRUG TAKER:
THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL CONSIDERATIONS

Introduction.
The Social Contexts of Drug-Using Practices.
The Social Construction of Drug-Using Cultures.
The Meaning of Dysfunctionality.
Symbols and Ritual: The Social Meaning of Drug Use.
Subculture Membership.
Multiple Membership and Affiliations.
Conclusion.
A Social Conceptualisation of Drug Use.
The Production of Functional Drug Use.
Correlates of Functionality.
Satisfaction.
References.

SECTION TWO-B - THE FIDU SAMPLE AND THE ISSUE OF FUNCTIONALITY.
Introduction.
Defining Functionality.
The Literature Search.
The Fieldwork.
A definition of Functionality.
The FIDU Sample and the Definition of Functionality.
Conclusion.

SECTION THREE - RISK BEHAVIOURS OF USERS.
Motives of Using.
Ways of Using.
Places of Use.
Social Context of Drug Use.
Interpersonal Use.
Sex and Drugs.
The Problems of Needle Supply and Disposal.
Polydrug Use.
Summary.
References.

SECTION FOUR - SOME ISSUES IN THE REDUCTION OF RISK: EDUCATION AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS.
Knowledge about HIV transmission.
Drug Use and Needle Sharing.
Safe sex.
Rules and Planning Behaviour.
The Ideology of Trust.
Needle Procurement.

SECTION FIVE - STIGMATISATION AND SOCIETAL REACTION: EDUCATION AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS.
Illegality.
Entry to Treatment.
Identity and Community.
Friends as Conduits of Information.
Safe Using.
Reference.

APPENDIX ONE - SPECIAL ISSUES.
Young People and Drugs and Sex Education.
Gender Divisions, Women.
Prisons and the Normalisation of Unsafe Using Practices.
Dealers as AIDS Prevention Agents.

Acknowledgments:
Field work interviewers: Kim Hewitt, Sue Morgan, Bill Robertson
Project administration: Penny Dickson
Administrative and office support: Yvonne Roberts

Interviewees:
Thank you to the many people who volunteered to be interviewed for the project and for helping us recruit additional people to be interviewed. Funding:

The project was funded by a grant from the AIDS Bureau, NSW Department of Health.

July1991 MACQUARIE UNIVERSITY CENTRE FOR APLLIED SOCIAL RESEARCH