No Credit Check Payday Loans



JoomlaWatch Agent

Visitors hit counter, stats, email report, location on a map, SEO for Joomla, Wordpress, Drupal, Magento and Prestashop

JoomlaWatch Users

JoomlaWatch Visitors

54% United States  United States
11.2% United Kingdom  United Kingdom
5.9% Australia  Australia
5.6% Canada  Canada
3.3% Philippines  Philippines
2.2% Kuwait  Kuwait
2.1% India  India
1.6% Germany  Germany
1.5% Netherlands  Netherlands
1.1% France  France

Today: 145
Yesterday: 310
This Week: 1508
Last Week: 2303
This Month: 5320
Last Month: 5638
Total: 24085

Written by Jon Derricott   
Wednesday, 01 April 1998 00:00


1 (1992) The Book of Inventions and Discoveries, p. 154. Queen Anne Press.

2 (1995) Encyclopaedia Brittanica (15th ed.) p. 458. Encyclopaedia Brittanica Inc.

3 Boraker D K (1986) The Syringe (vol. 2), p.340­48. Medical Heritage.

4 Macht D I (1916) The history of intravenous and subcutaneous injecting of drugs. TheJournal of the American Medical Association. LXVI.

5 Morris R and Kendrick J (1807) The Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Dictionary. Bell and Bradfute; and Mundell, Doyle and Stevenson, Edinburgh.

6 Howard-Jones N (1947) A critical study of the origins and early development of hypodermic medication. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, II: 218­19.

7 Kane H H (1880) The Hypodermic Injection of Morphia. Its History Advantages andDangers. Chas L Bermingham & Co., New York.

8 Anstie F E (1871) On the effects of the prolonged use of morphia by subcutaneous injection. Practitioner
6: 148­57.

9 Berridge V and Edwards G (1987) Opium and the people. Opiate Use in Nineteenth Century England, pp. 139­40. Yale University Press, USA.

10 Courtwright D (1982) Dark Paradise; Opiate Addiction in America Before 1940, p. 42. Harvard University Press, USA.

11 Crane L R (1991) Epidemiology of infections in intravenous drug abusers. In: Levine D P and Sobel J D (eds) Infections in Intravenous Drug Abusers. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

12 Editor. Tetanus after hypodermic injection of morphia. Lancet 2:873­6.

13 Biggam A G (1929) Malignant malaria associated with the administration of heroin intravenously. Transactions of Society of Tropical Medical Hygiene, 23:147­53.

14 Crane L R (1991) Epidemiology of infections in intravenous drug abusers. In: Levine DP and Sobel JD (eds) Infections in Intravenous Drug Abusers, p. 4. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

15 Howard J and Borges P (1971) Needle sharing in the Haight: some social and psychological functions. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 4 (1).

16 Becton Dickinson (1997) Celebrating the First 100 Years. Becton Dickinson Ltd.

17 Hunter G M, Donoghoe M C and Stimson G V (1995) Changes in the injecting risk behaviour of injecting drug users in London: 1990­1993. AIDS, 9: 493­501.

18 Griffiths P, Gossop M and Strang J (1997) Chasing the dragon: the development of heroin smoking in the United Kingdom. In: Strang J and Gossop M (eds) Heroin Addiction and Drug Policy: The British System. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

19 Griffiths P, Gossop M, Powis B, et al. (1994) Transitions in patterns of heroin administration: a study of heroin chasers and injectors. Addiction, 89: 301­9.

20 Brettle R P, Bisset K, Burns S, et al. (1987) Human immunodeficiency virus and drug misuse: the Edinburgh experience. British Medical Journal 295: 421­4.

21 Robertson J R, Bucknall A B V, Welsby
P D, et al. (1986) An epidemic of AIDS-related virus (HTLV III/ LAV) infection among intravenous drug abusers in a Scottish general practice. British Medical Journal,292: 527­30 .

22 Stimson G V, Alldritt L J, Dolan K A,
et al. (November 1988) Injecting Equipment Exchange Schemes Final Report. Monitoring Research Group, University of London, Goldsmiths College.

23 Advisory Council (1988) AIDS and Drug Misuse (part 1). HMSO, London.

24 Seymour H and Eaton G (1997)
Re-engineering Harm Reduction. Presented at the 8th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm. Paris, March 1997.

25 Parsons J, Turnbull P J, McSweeney T, et al. Syringe Exchange Provision in the UK. Results from a national survey. The Centre for research on Drugs and Health Behaviour.

26 Stimson G V (1996) Has the United Kingdom averted an epidemic of HIV-1 infection among drug injectors? Addiction, 91(8): 1085­8.

27 The Task Force to Review Services for Drug Misusers (1996) Report of an Independent Review of Drug Services in England. Department of Health, London.

28 Royal Pharmaceutical Society Great Britain (1988) Medicines, Ethics and Practice: a guide for pharmacists, p. 71.

29 Watters J K (1996) Americans and syringe exchange, roots of resistance. In: Rhodes T and Hartnoll R (eds.) AIDS, Drugs and Prevention. Routledge, London.

30 Hahn R A, Onorato I M, Jones T S, et al. (1989) Prevalence of HIV infection among intravenous drug users in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261: 2677­84.

31 Lurie P and Drucker E (1997) An opportunity lost: HIV infections associated with the lack of a needle exchange programme in the US. Lancet, 349: 604­8.

32 Weber U and Schneider W (1998) Syringe exchange in Germany. Substance Use andMisuse, 33(5): 1093-112.

33 Rana S (1997) Harm reduction in Asia. The International Journal of Drug Policy,8(3):132­6.


34 Asian Harm Reduction Network (1998) The Hidden Epidemic: A Situation Assessment of Drug Use in South East and East Asia in the Context of HIV Vulnerability.

35 Stimson G V (1996) Has the UK averted an epidemic of HIV among injecting drug users?Addiction, 91(8): Editorial.

36 Adelekan M L and Stimson G V (1997) Problems and prospects of implementing harm reduction for HIV and injecting drug use in high risk sub-Saharan African countries. Journal of Drug Issues, 27(1): 97­116.

37 Hartnoll R, Lewis R, Mitcheson M, et al. (1985) Estimating the prevalence of opioid dependence. Lancet, 26: 203­5.

38 Johnson A M, Wadsworth J, Wellings K, et al. (1992) Sexual lifestyles and HIV risk. Nature, 360: 410­12.

39 Lambert E Y and Wiebel W W (1990) In: Lambert E Y (ed.) The Collection and Interpretation of Data from Hidden Populations: NIDA Research Monograph 98, pp. 1­3. NIDA, Rockville MD.

40 Broadhead R S and Fox K J (1990) Takin' it to the streets: AIDS outreach as ethnography. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 19(3): 322­49.

41 Power R (1995) A model for qualitative action research amongst illicit drug users. Addiction Research, 3(3): 165­81.

42 Bloor M (1995) The Sociology of HIV Transmission. Sage, London.

43 Stimson G V (1998) Personal communication.

44 Des Jarlais D, Hagan H, Friedman S, et al. (1998) Preventing epidemics of HIV-1 among injecting drug users. In: Stimson G V, Des Jarlais D and Ball A (eds) Drug Injecting and HIV Infection: Global Dimensions and Local Responses. UCL Press, London.

45 Strathdee S, Patrick D, Currie S, et al. (1997) Needle exchange is not enough: lessons from the Vancouver injecting drug use study. AIDS, 11(8): 59­65.


46 Unlinked Anonymous HIV Surveys Steering Group (1995) Unlinked anonymous HIV Prevalence Monitoring Programme: England and Wales. Department of Health, London.

47 Stimson G V, Hunter G M, Donoghoe
M C, et al. (1996) HIV prevalence in community wide samples of injecting drug users in London (1990­1993). AIDS, 10: 657­66.

48 PHLS AIDS Centre & The Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health (1998) Cumulative number of reported UK AIDS cases (1985­1997) attributed to injecting. AIDS/HIV Quarterly Surveillance Tables No. 38.

49 Hickman M, Bardsley M and De Angelis D (September 1997) A Sexual Health Ready Reckoner. Discussion Paper. The Health of Londoners Project, London.

50 The Lindesmith Centre. Syringe availability.

51 Christie B (1993) HIV outbreak investigated in Scottish jail. British Medical Journal, 307: 151­2.

52 Power R, Hartnoll R and Daviaud E (1988) Drug injecting, AIDS, and risk behaviour: potential for change and intervention strategies. British Journal of Addiction, 83: 694­754.

53 Hunter G M, Donoghoe M C and Stimson G V (1995) Changes in the injecting risk behaviour of injectors in London
1990­1993. AIDS 9: 493­501.

54 Stimson G V and Hunter G M (1996) Interventions with drug injectors in the UK: trends in risk behaviour and HIV prevention. International Journal of STD and AIDS,7 (suppl. 2): 52­6.

55 Speed S and Bennett A (1997) Sharing Injecting Paraphernalia. An Audit of Risk Behaviours Among Attenders at Syringe Exchange Schemes in North West England. University of Central Lancashire, HIT, Liverpool.

56 Pawson R and Tilley N (1994) What works in evaluation research? British Journal of Criminology, 34: 291­306.

57 Hunt N, Stillwell G, Taylor C, et al. (1998) Evaluation of a brief intervention to prevent initiation into injecting. Drug: education, prevention and policy, 5(2): 185­94.

58 Wodak A (1997) Needle exchange: just do it! AIDS Targeted Information, 11(5): guest editorial.

59 Drake M E, Hampil B, Pennell R B, et al. (1952) Effect of nitrogen mustard on virus of serum hepatitis in whole blood. Proceedings of Sociological Experimental Biological Medicine, 80: 310­13.

60 Moore T (1997) Hepatitis C, the Challenges of Prevention. Presented at the 8th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm. Paris, March 1997.

61 Power R (1995) Coping with Illicit Drug Use. Tufnell Press, London.

62 Scott J, Bond C, Kennedy E, et al. (1997) Investigation into the Effectiveness of Filters for Use by Intravenous Drug Users. Presented at the 8th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm. Paris, March 1997.

63 Scott J, Kennedy E J, Winfield A J, et al. (1998) Investigation into the effectiveness of filters for use by intravenous drug users. International Journal of Drug Policy, 9: 181­6.

64 Gallo J, Playfair J, Gregory Roberts J, et al. (1985) Fungal endophthalmitis in narcotic abusers. The Medical Journal of Australia, 142: 386­8.

65 Swan S K, Wagner R A, Myers J P, et al. (1985) Mycotic endophthalmitis caused by Penicillium sp. after parenteral drug abuse. American Journal of Ophthamology, 100(3): 408­10.

66 Grund J P C (1993) Drug Use as a Social Ritual: Functionality, Symbolism and Determinants of Self Regulation. Instituut voor Verslavingsonderzoek, Rotterdam.

67 Smith A, Vlahov D, Menon A S, et al. Terminology for drug injection practices among intravenous drug users in Baltimore. International Journal of the Addictions,27: 435­53.

68 Darke S, Ross J and Hall W (1996) Prevalence and correlates of the injection of methadone syrup in Sydney Australia. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 43: 191­8.

69 Strang J, Sheridan J and Barber N (1996) Prescribing injectable and oral methadone to opiate addicts: results from the1995 national postal survey of community pharmacies in England and Wales. British Medical Journal, 3(313)(7052): 270­2.

70 Lenton S, Reynolds J and Charlton M (1994) Shopping, Baking and Using: The Manufacture, Use and Problems Associated with Heroin Made in the Home from Codeine BasedPharmaceuticals. Presented at the 5th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm. Toronto, 6­10 March 1994 .

71 Hall W, Hando J, Darke S, et al. (1996) Psychological morbidity and route of administration among amphetamine users in Sydney, Australia. Addiction, 91(1): 81­7.

72 King L A, Clarke K and Orpet A J (1994) Amphetamine profiling in the UK. Forensic Science International, 69:

73 Chaisson R E, Bachetti P, Osmond D, et al. (1989) Cocaine use and HIV infection in intravenous drug users in San Francisco. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261(4): 561­5.

74 Jones R T (1984) The pharmacology of cocaine. In: Grabowski J (ed.) Cocaine: Pharmacology, Effects and Treatment of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph 50, pp. 34­53. NIDA, Rockville MD.

75 Wetli C V (1993) Fatal reactions to cocaine. In: Washton A M and Gold M S (eds) Cocaine:A Clinician's Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

76 Gomez J and Rodriguez C (1989) An evaluation of the results of a drug sample analysis. UN Bulletin on Narcotics 41(12): 121­6.

77 Ruben S M and Morrison C L (1992) Temazepam misuse in a group of injecting drug users. British Journal of Addiction, 87(10): 1387­92.

78 Nott D M, Chandrasakar L, Enabi M,
et al. (1993) Intra-arterial injection of temazepam in drug abusers. European Journal of Vascular Surgery, 7: 87­9.

79 Dickinson D P and Rich J D (1996) Infections secondary to anabolic steroid misuse and their prevention. The Journal of Performance Enhancing Drugs, 1(4).

80 Hunter G and Bridge J (1997) Anabolic Steroids: A Guide for Professionals in Salford and Trafford. The Drugs & Sport Information Service, Liverpool.

81 National Pharmaceutical Association (1997) Supplement: November, p. 2.

82 Ruben S M and Melville J (1989) Cyclizine abuse among a group of opiate dependents receiving methadone. British Journal of Addiction, 84: 929­34.

83 Pearson G, Gilman M and Traynor P (1990) The limits of intervention. Druglink, May/June: 12­13.

84 Coomber R (1997) Vim in the veins - fantasy or fact: the adulteration of illicit drugs. Addiction Research, 5: 195 - 212.

85 Coomber R (1997) Dangerous drug adulteration ­ an international survey of drug dealers using the internet and the world wide web (WWW). The International Journal of Drug Policy, 8(2): 71­81.

86 Coomber R (1997) How often does the adulteration/dilution of heroin actually occur? An analysis of 228 'street' heroin samples across the UK (1995­96) and discussion of monitoring policy. International Journal of Drug Policy, 8 (4): 178­86.

87 Huizer H (1988) Efficacy of volatilization during heroin smoking. In: Huizer H (ed.)Analytical Studies on Illicit Heroin,
pp. 107­26. The Netherlands Ministry
of Justice, The Netherlands.

88 Liverpool Echo, 26 November, 1997.

89 Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence.

90 Aldridge T and Cranfield S (1993) Health and safer injecting. In: Getting to the Point: Healthcare and Safer Injecting. Health Education Authority, London.

91 Gray H (1977) In: Pickering T and Howden R (eds) Grays Anatomy, p. 616. Bounty Books, New York.

92 Rozler M H, McCarroll K A, Donovan
K R, et al. (1988) The groin hit: complications of intravenous drug abuse. Radiographics,9(3): 487­508.

93 Myers E M, Kirkland L S and Mickey R (1988) The head and neck sequalae of cervical intravenous drug abuse. Laryngoscope, 98(2): 213­18.

94 O'Malley C D, White E, Schecter R, et al. (1988) Tetanus among injecting drug users ­ California 1997. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(13): 987.

95 Passaro D J, Benson Werner S,
Mcgee J, et al. (1998) Wound botulism associated with black tar heroin among injecting drug users. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(11): 859­63.

96 Southwell M and Picorne W (1997) Benefits of Heroin Chasing Campaign as a HarmReduction Tool. Presented at the 8th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm. Paris, March 1997.

97 Southwell M (1997) 'Up yer bum.' A Simple Safer Route of Drug Taking or a Squirt Too Far? Presented at the 8th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm. Paris, March 1997.

98 Morrison A, Elliott L and Gruer L (1997) Injecting-related harm and treatment seeking behaviour among injecting drug users. Addiction, 92(10): 1349­52.

99 Vlahov D, Sullivan M, Astemborski J, et al. (1992) Bacterial infections and skin cleaning prior to injection among intravenous drug users. Public Health Reports,107(5): 595­7.

100 Posner D I and Guill A (1985) Cutaneous foreign body granulomas associated with intravenous drug abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 13: 869­72.

101 Darke S and Zador D (1996) Fatal heroin 'overdose': a review. Addiction, 91(12): 1765­72.

102 Darke S, Ross J and Hall W (1996) Overdose among heroin users in Sydney Australia: 1. Prevalence and correlates of non-fatal overdose. British Journal of Addiction, 91: 405­11.

103 Kjelsberg E, Winther M and Dahl A A (1995) Overdose deaths in young substance abusers: accidents or hidden suicides? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 91: 236­42.

104 HIT (1995) A Guide to Safer Injecting. HIT, Liverpool.

105 Luke L C, Good A M T and Geary U (1997) Handbook of Accident and Emergency Medicine. Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool.

106 Strang J, Darke S, Hall W, et al. Heroin overdose: the case for take home naloxone. British Medical Journal, 312: 1435.

107 Hunt N (1997) Incidence of needlestick injuries among people who inject. Addiction,92(2): 219­20.

108 Advisory Council on Dangerous Pathogens (1996) Protection Against Blood-borneInfections in the Workplace: HIV and Hepatitis. HMSO, London.

109 Morgan D R (1990) Developing a successful hepatitis B prevention policy. Lancet,335: 1280.

110 Hall A (1994) Drug addicts' 'impossible' targets for vaccination. Viral Hepatitis, 2(1): 7.

111 Waller T and Holmes R (1995) Hepatitis C: scale and impact in Britain. Druglink,Sept/Oct: 8­11.

112 British Liver Trust (1997) Injecting Drug Use and Hepatitis C. Lifeline, London.

113 Wodak A and Crofts N (1996) Once more unto the breach: controlling hepatitis C in injecting drug users. Addiction, 91(2): 181­4.

114 Edwards C R W, Bouchier I A D, Haslett C et al. (eds) (1996) Davidsons' Principles and Practice of Medicine. Churchill Livingstone, London.

115 Stimson G V and Donoghoe M C (1996) Syringe exchange and individual change. In: Rhodes T and Hartnoll R (eds) AIDS, Drugs and Prevention. Routledge, London.

116 (1992) Code of Professional Conduct. UKCC, London.

117 Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (1993) AIDS and Drug Misuse: Update. HMSO, London.

118 Rhodes T (1997) Models of Outreach Among Injecting Drug Users. Executive Summary No. 56. The Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour, London.

119 Wiebel W (1996) Ethnography and community intervention. In: Rhodes T and Hartnoll R (eds) AIDS, Drugs and Prevention. Routledge, London.

120 Grund J, Broadhead R, Heckathorn D, et al. Peer driven outreach to combat HIV among IDUs. A basic design and preliminary results. In: Rhodes T and Hartnoll R (eds) AIDS,Drugs and Prevention. Routledge, London.

121 The North Thames Peer Intervention Forum (1997) Community Based Peer Intervention Aimed at Drug Prevention and Harm Minimisation.

122 Aldridge T and Preston A (1997) Agency policy for the provision of needle exchange services to young people and guidelines to inform its implementation. ISDD, London.

123 Turnbull P J, Power R, Stimson G V (1996) 'Just using old works': injecting risk behaviour in prison. Drug and Alcohol Review, 15: 251­60.

124 Gore S M, Bird A G, Burns S M, et al. (1995) Drug injection and HIV prevalence in inmates of Glenochil prison. British Medical Journal, 310: 293­6.

125 Pitt R (1997) Prison Drug Use: Exploring the Myths. Paper given at the 3rd European Conference on Drug and HIV/AIDS Services in Prison. Amsterdam.

126 McGeorge J, Crofts N and Burrows C (1995) Dissaffected or Disinfected? The redevelopment of disinfection and safe injecting messages, p. 24. Epidemiology & Social Research Unit, McFarlane Burnet Centre for Medical Research, Fairfield, Victoria.

127 World Health Organisation (1993) Global Programme on AIDS. WHO Guidelines on HIV Infection and AIDS in Prisons. WHO, Geneva.

128 Roberts K, McNulty H, Gruer L, et al. (1997) The role of Glasgow pharmacists in the management of drug misuse. International Journal of Drug Policy, 9: 187­4.

129 Doherty M C, Garfein R S, Vlahov D, et al. (1997) Discarded needles do not increase soon after the opening of a needle exchange program. American Journal of Epidemiology, 145: 730­7.

130 Nourse C B, Charles C A, McKay M, et al. (1997) Childhood needlestick injuries in the Dublin metropolitan area. Irish Medical Journal, 90(2): 66­9.

131 Hunt N (1995) '38' Injected Drug Use Study. Cornerstone Research Services, Priority Care NHS Trust, Maidstone.

132 Hunt N, Holland J and King A (1996) South Kent Drug and Alcohol Team SyringeExchange Evaluation: Final Report. Cornerstone Research Services, Priority Care NHS Trust, Maidstone.

133 Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (1992) Exposure to hepatitis B virus: guidance on post exposure prophylaxis. CDR Review, 2: 97­101.

134 Zinberg N E (1984) Drug, Set and Setting: The Basis for Controlled Intoxicant Use. Yale University Press, USA.

135 Prochaska J O, DiClemente C and Norcross J (1992) In search of how people change addictive behaviours. American Psychologist, 47: 1102­14.

136 Baker A, Kochan N, Dixon J, et al. (1994) Controlled evaluation of a brief intervention for HIV prevention among injecting drug users not in treatment. AIDS Care,6(5): 559­70.

137 Neeleman J, Unwin C and Farrel M (1994) British Medical Journal 308:
1710 (letter).

138 Rhodes T and Quirk A (1996) Heroin, risk and sexual safety: some problems for interventions encouraging community change. In: Rhodes T and Hartnoll R (eds) AIDS, Drugs and Prevention. Routledge, London.

139 Rhodes T (1996) Culture, drugs and unsafe sex: confusion about causation. Addiction,91(6): 753­8.

140 Green A and Rhodes T (1995) Sexual Health Promotion With Drug Users. AVERT, London.

141 Greenfield L, Bigelow G E and Brooner
R K (1992) HIV risk behaviour in drug users: increased blood 'booting' during cocaine injection. AIDS Education and Prevention, 4(2): 95­107.

©Jon Derricott
©html1999 mario lap drugtext foundation

Last Updated on Wednesday, 05 January 2011 23:41

Our valuable member Jon Derricott has been with us since Sunday, 19 December 2010.

Show Other Articles Of This Author