My interest in the political significance of the American Temperance movement was first awakened in the course of an earlier study con-cerned with organizational and doctrinal changes in the Woman's Cluistian Temperance Union. The present book is an effort to an-swer theoretical questions about moral reform movements to which the earlier study had led me. Thus it was necessary to consider the entire scope of Temperance in American politics and history.
I have drawn on my earlier work (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1954 ) in certain sections of this book. Some aspects of that work discussed here were reported in my "Social Structure and Moral Reform: A Study of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union," American Journal of Sociology, 61 ( November, 1955), 221- 232.
In the course of my studies of Temperance I have benefited from the use of the Frances Willard Library at the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union in Evanston, Illinois. The cooperation of former presidents of the organization, Mrs. D. L. Colvin and Mrs. Glenn Hays, in initial parts of this study was both gracious and indispensable. I am thankful to them and to the officers of WCTU units who helped me to understand their views. Grants from the University of Illinois Graduate Research Board provided a Sum-mer Faculty Fellowship, during which the initial draft of this book was written, and the costs of typing the various versions of manu-script. I am grateful to the National Council for the Prevention of Alcoholism and the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Wel-fare for sponsoring my attendance at special meetings of the Committee on Alcoholism of the Society for the Study of Social Prob-lems, in 1960 and 1961. Both meetings added significantly to my knowledge of current research on drinldng behavior. The Distilled Spirits Institute kindly made available to me their Annual Reports. Some aspects of the present study were discussed by me in "Status Conflicts and the Changing Ideologies of the American Temperance Movement," in David Pittman and Charles Snyder (eds.), Society, Culture, and Drinking Patterns ( New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1962), pp. 101-120.
No author can recall everyone from whom he has borrowed un-footnoted thoughts. We can only mention those whose criticisms and suggestions have been especially noteworthy. Herbert Blumer and Everett Hughes were responsible for stimulating and guiding my early interest in this area of study. The following have been helpful in suggesting ideas and avenues of exploration: Bernard Farber, Erving Coffman, Norman Graebner, Robert Habenstein, Donald Horton, Edward Hulett, Jr., Bernard Karsh, David Pittman, David Riesman, Charles Snyder, and W. Lloyd Warner. The follow-ing, in addition, gave the last full measure of collegial devotion and read all or part of early or final drafts of the manuscript: Bennett Berger, John Clark, Barbara Dennis, Murray Edelman, Alvin Gould-ner, Mark Keller, Louis Schneider, and R. Richard Wohl. Louise Bindman helped in the preparation of footnotes.
I owe a special debt to R. Richard Wohl that, unfortunately, can never be repaid. More than anyone, he encouraged me to continue my earlier interest in Temperance. His death at the early age of 36 was a loss to American scholarship and a personal blow. His many friends will always remember his erudition, wit, and lively enthusiasm for the play of the intellect.
Two very recent and significant monographs appeared after this manuscript had gone to press. We were thus unable to utilize these works by Andrew Sinclair (Prohibition) and James Timberlake (Pro-hibition and the Progressive Movement) in the body of the text.