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Table of Contents PDF Print E-mail
Written by Administrator   
Thursday, 10 June 2010 00:00

Cannabis Report of the Swiss Federal Commission For Drug Issues (EKDF)
May 1999
Swiss Federal Printing and Supplies Office No. Contact person: Ueli Minder Section for Policy and Research Telephone ++ 41 31 324 98 04



Table of Contents

Preface and acknowledgements

1.1 Cannabis as the focus of expert opinions and political initiatives
1.2 Why reassess the position of cannabis?
1.3 Structure of the report
2.1 Prevalence of cannabis use
2.1.1 Development of cannabis use from 1970 to 1998
2.1.2 Age at first use
2.1.3 International comparison
2.2 Availability and trade
2.2.1 Legal uses
2.2.1.1 Cannabis in agriculture
2.2.1.2 Cannabis for food products, cosmetics and consumer goods
2.2.1.3 Medical used of cannabis
2.2.2 Illegal use
2.2.3 Hemp cultivation
2.3. Pharmacology and toxicology of cannabis
2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 Cannabis in the body
2.3.2.1 Absorption, metabolism and excretion.
2.3.2.2 Pharmacodynamics
2.3.3 Acute effects of cannabis on the central nervous system
2.3.4 Acute side effects and toxicity of cannabis
2.3.5 Cannabis and driving
2.3.6 Medical uses of THC and cannabis
2.3.7 Effects of chronic cannabis use
2.3.7.1 Amotivation syndrome
2.3.7.2 Dependence and tolerance
2.3.7.3 Carcinogenic effect
2.3.7.4 Genetic effects and effects on reproduction and pregnancy
2.3.7.5 Effects on the immune system
2.4 Historical and sociocultural aspects
2.5 The medical importance of cannabis
2.5.1 Introduction
2.5.2 Investigation of the therapeutic action of cannabis
2.5.3 Cannabis poisoning in medical emergency statistics
2.5.3.1 Swiss Toxicology Information Center
2.5.3.2 Clinical trials in Switzerland
2.6 The legal environment
2.6.1 International conventions
2.6.2 The Federal Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances Act (BetmG; SR 812.121)
2.6.3 The Swiss Road Traffic Act
2.6.4 Agricultural and private cultivation
2.6.4. 1 Hemp in agriculture
2.6.4.2 Hemp in food, cosmetics and articles of daily use
2.6.4.3 Hemp in medicine
2.6.4.4 Hemp as a "dual- use crop"
2.7 Enforcement of the existing legislation
2.8 Effects of the status quo
2.8.1 General preventive effectiveness
2.8.2 Aid in crime detection
2.8.3 Higher propensity to undergo treatment
2.8.4 Prevention of consumption in public
2.8.5 Cost of policing and prosecution
2.8.6 Stigmatization of users
2.8.7 Doubts as to credibility and proportionality
2.8.8 Inequality of justice
2.8.9 Corruption
3. Ethical Implications of a liberal policy on drugs
4. Options
4.1 Clarification of terminology
4.1.1 Decriminalization under substantive and procedural law
4.1.1.1 Discretion in Swiss law
4.1.1.2 Discretion in the Dutch sense
4.1.2 Decriminalization and legalization
4.2 Models of limited decriminalization
4.2.1 Introduction and summary
4.2.2 Removal of the substantive offence of consumption and procurement for personal use
4.2.3 Change in the severity of penalties
4.2.4 Introduction of an expediency regime for cultivation and retail along the lines of the Netherlands model
4.2.5 Conditions to be met by models for change
4.3 Models of legal availability of cannabis and THC products
4.3.1 Introduction and overview
4.3.2 Prescription of cannabis by medical doctors
4.3.2.1 Medicinal use
4.3.2.2 Non- medicinal use
4.3.2.3 Conditions for medical prescription
4.3.3 Licensing of dealing
4.3.3. 1 Limitation of the number of licensed outlets
4.3.3.2 Product requirements
4.3.3.3 Taxation and retail price maintenance
4.3.3.4 Advertising restrictions
4.3.3.5 Licensing without restrictions or taxation
4.3.3.6 Requirements for the implementation of licensing models
4.3.4 Controlled purchase
4.3.4.1 Rationing
4.3.4.2 Restriction of the right to purchase
4.3.4.3 Registration of purchasers
4.3.4.4 Purchase entitlement without rationing or registration
4.3.4.5 Prerequisites for controlled purchase
4.3.5 Free availability
4.3.5.1 Product requirements
4.3.5.2 Fiscal measures
4.3.5.3 Advertising restrictions
4.3.5.4 No restrictive regulations and no taxation
4.3.5.5 Prerequisites for the introduction of free availability
4.3.6 Cultivation
4.3.6.1 Cultivation permitted for personal consumption
4.3.6.2 Strictly regulated cultivation
5. Consequences of the options
5.1 Change in consumption propensity
5. 1. 1 Removal of the offence of consumption (see section 4. 2. 3)
5.1.2 Change in the severity of penalties (see section 4.2.4)
5.1.3 Introduction of a system based on the expediency principle (see section 4.2.5)
5.1.4 Medical prescription (see section 2. 5)
5.1.5 Licensing of suppliers (see section 4. 3. 3)
5.1.6 Controlled purchase (see section 4. 3. 4)
5.1.7 Free availability (see section 4.3.5)
5.2 Changes in consumption and consumption patterns
5.2.1 Removal of the offence of consumption (see section 4. 2. 3)
5.2.2 Change in the severity of penalties (see section 4.2.4)
5.2.3 Introduction of a system based on the expediency principle (see section 4.2.5)
5.2.4 Medical prescription (see section 2. 5)
5.2.5 Licensing of suppliers (see section 4. 3. 3)
5.2.6 Controlled purchase (see section 4. 3. 4)
5.2.7 Free availability (see section 4.3.5)
5.3 Changes in the effects of consumption
5.4 Consequences for the illegal cannabis market
5.5 Need for new regulation
5.6 Political consequences
6.1 Grounds for removing the prohibitions of consumption and of procurement for personal consumption
6.2 Objectives of cannabis policy
6.2.1 Protection of the young
6.2.2 Consumer protection
6.2.3 Promotion of health awareness
6.2.4 Minimization of problem consumption
6.2.5 Prevention of consumption- related criminalization and stigmatization of young persons
6.2.6 Relieving the police and criminal justice system of the need to investigate and prosecute petty offences
6.2.7 Uniform enforcement of the applicable law
6.2.8 Credibility of drugs policy
6.2.9 Protection of other sections of the community
6.2.10 Eradicating the illegal cannabis markets
6.2.11 Cost effectiveness of drug policy measures
Medicinal use
6.3 Effect of the options in terms of the goals
6.4 Overall conclusions
7.1 Legal availability of cannabis
7.2 Limited decriminalization within the ambit of the Single Convention of 1961
7.3 Medicinal use of cannabis
8. Country profiles

Last Updated on Tuesday, 04 January 2011 23:11
 

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