25th FEBRUARY, 1909
THE business of the Commission commenced at ro.3o a.m. The PRESIDENT read a letter which he had received from the Delegate for Italy, who regretted that he was still unable through illness to attend. A communication was also read from Mr. Charles B. Towns, who had placed a formula for the cure of victims of the opium habit in the hands of the President.
Dr. TENNEY' read the summary of a report submitted by the Committee on existing National Agreements covering- the Opium Traffic. The Chief Commissioner for Portugal pointed out that the Ag-reement between Portug-al and China for controlling the opium trade _at Macao was not included in the Committee's report, and the Chair directed that this omission should be rectified.
The Chinese resolutions then came up for discussion.
The Right Hon. Sir CECIL CLEMENTI Smini.—" We listened, need hardly say, with very g-reat interest and, I might add, admiration to the particulars delivered to us _yesterday by Mr. PANG, and 1 trust I may be allowed to say a few words in connection with the first of the resolutions before us:—
" I am obliged, after the line which we have already taken on this subject, with the approval of a large majority- of the House, to take exception to this resolution on the point of order: and in strictness, that being our intention I ought, perhaps, to refrain from saying more. But 1 believe that in the special circumstances of this renewed appeal, I shall have your permission and the indulgence of the House in adding some further observations, which I hope will soften the possible appearance of harshness in our refusal to join in a discussion which has now been raised on two occasions.
" Our position is simply this : that it is impossible for the British delegates, unless specifically instructed in that sense, to discuss with representatives of China a matter which has been the subject of diplomatic negotiations between the two countries, and still less permissible for us to acquiesce by our continued presence here in such discussion by third parties. No such instructions have been communicate(' to us, nor could there, in our judgm-ent, be any reasonable expectation in any quarter that such instructions would be given, seeing that of the thirteen Powers represented here only two are directly and practically concerned in the matter with which this resolution really- deals.
" I trust, therefore, that in spite of our adherence to a position from which it would be presumption for us to depart, the Chinese deleg-ates will remain satisfied that we have not withdrawn, at this late stage of the proceedings of the Commission, from the sympathetic standpoint which we assumed at the outset and have sought to maintain throughout : and will
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remember that this is the standpoint of our own Government from whom, in the inception. of her great task, China obtained an immediate and spontaneous assurance of support, and afterwards, in its execution, an active practical co-operation which have counted and will count for infinitely more than any irresponsible pronouncement to which we might commit ourselves. in this place."
Monsieur MIvA0KA.—" With the permission and indulgence of the Commission, I beg to express the sense of sincere satisfaction with which this Delegation has heard the most sympathetic statement from the British Delegation. I am sure that the Chinese Delegation has the entire sympathy of the various Delegations here present in the gigantic task which she has undertaken, and no statement of profound sympathy is more welcome. than that from the British Delegation. I therefore beg to express the sincere satisfaction with which this Delegation has heard the declaration of the Right Hon. Sir CECIL CLEMENTI SMITH."
Mr. T'ANG.—" After the kind words NA hich have fallen irom the Right Hon. Chief Commissicner for Great Britain, the Chinese Delegation does not insist upon putting the first resolution to the vote of this House; nevertheless we wish to have it put on record that it is the desire of the Government and people of China to have the abolition of the opium evil effected as quickly as possible. It was hoped that in view of the universal sympathy manifested for China,—in view of the almost universal recognition of our earnestness and progress in this moral reform,—that the British Delegation might see their way to recommend to their Government a speedier measure for the abolition of the opium evil, thereby placing China under a still greater debt of obligation to Great Britain. Hitherto• the complaint has been that China was unwilling to take up the matter of opium reform—that she was too fond of the revenue derived, and that she would not assume the leadership in. starting this opium campaign ; but having 110W assumed the leadership and striven her utmost to carry out this reform, we think that we were justified in hoping that Great Britain would not only follow us but maybe surpass the lead that China has assumed. It was with these hopes that we put forward this resolution, but we are now prepared to withdraw it under the assurance which has been expressed by the Right Hon. Commissioner for Great Britain."
Mr. 'PANG moved the adoption of the second Chinese resolution.
Monsieur RATARD rose, on behalf of the French Delegation, to enquire if the Chinese Government had issued orders for the closing of opium-shops, and not only of divans. He had to inform the Chinese Delegation that in Kuangchowwan his Government had a contract with the opium farmers which would last until the end of the year 19ii: until that date it was impossible for his Government to accept any suggestion to break such contract. He suggested that the words opiunz-shops should be deleted, and the words as S0021 as tiler may deem it advisable inserted after the words to that end.
Monsieur MIVAOKA.—" 111 connection with the resolution which i S 110W before us, I beg to make a statement in reference to Antung, regarding a passage which occurs in Mr. Leech's report contained in the British Parliamentary paper, China No. 1. In that report it is stated that there are any number of Japanese divans in Antung. I am very glad to be able to give categorical assurance in the presence of the various Delegations here present that every one of the opium divans, with which any Japanese subject had any connection whatever, has been strictly forbidden and closed."
Mr. PANG.—" In support of our Resolution No. 2, may I be allowed to make some remarks. Before doing so, however, I would like to answer the question put by the French Delegation as to whether we have closed all opium-shops as well as opium divans. The words opium-shops appear by mistake in the resolution and should be struck out. Our Government is well aware that so long as the opium habit has not been given up, the closing of opium-shops will be impossible, and that the closing of opium-shops must be effected concurrently with the abandonment of the opium habit. What was in the mind of the Chinese Delegation when drawing up Resolution No. 2 was to request those Governments which had opium divans. in their Concessions to take speedy steps to close them, and perhaps with the permission of this House we may be permitted to advance one or two arguments in favour of our proposal. I think on a previous occasion the French Delegation was good enough to give two reasons, as • propounded by the French Municipality in Shanghai, for the temporary continuance of opium.
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divans in the French Concession. I think that these reasons were not taken into serious consideration by this House. You will remember that these reasons were, firstly, that the closing of opium divans would force the people to smoke in their own houses; and that, as a consequence of such step, the number of opium lamps would be greatly augmented, and the danger of fires increased thereby. According to the statistics of insurance companies which we have taken the trouble to obtain, we find that the number of fires caused by the ignition of opium lamps is practically nil. It is well known that opium smokers use a very slow burning and entirely uninflammable oil, and therefore the danger of fire from opium lamps is more imaginary than real. I need not take up any more time of this House by further statements to repudiate the pertinency of the arguments brought forward. I might, however, with the permission of the French Delegation, draw attention to the fact that in their Report, page 4, they state that on June 19th, 19°7, a Government proclamation was issued forbidding the opening of opium divans throughout the territory of Annam and Tonkin, and laying down that no new divans should be authorised in Cochin-China and Cambodia. If there were valid reasons for forbidding the opening of opium divans in Tonkin it appears to me that the same reasons might apply to the French Concessions in China, unless our friends the French Delegation can adduce evidence showing the difference of conditions in Cochin-China and Tonkin from those prevailing in Shanghai. It appears to the Chinese Delegation that in considering a moral issue of this kind we ought to look facts squarely in the face, and not delude ourselves in any way; that in deciding a matter of such momentous importance, we should not allow ourselves to clog the issue by private interests. I might add that the existence and the continuance of opium divans in the French Settlement is exerting a very discouraging effect upon certain sections of our people; that the news of the fact is being conveyed by the Chinese Press to the farthest corner of our Empire. The fact that all other Goveinments have ordered the closing of public divans in their Concessions, whilst the French Government has reasons for continuing them for a further period is, I repeat, exerting a very discouraging affect, and we, therefore, beg their sympathetic co-operation. We appeal to their sense of international justice and fair play, and hope that our appeal will not be in vain."
Monsieur RATARD said that it was very difficult to give a complete reply to Mr. T`i-kNG's statement. He wished to declare, however, that as soon as the Anti-Opium movement began in China, iminediate steps had been taken by the French Municipal Council to prevent the issue of any new licences in the Concession. Moreover, the tax had been doubled, the effect being to diminish the number of couches by 3o per cent during the first year. They were determined not to tolerate the opening of more dens, in spite of the fact that more were being opened, if rumour was correct, in the Chinese city. They would completely suppress opium divans in the French Concession. They had engaged to do it, but they wished to be assured that China herself \ as in earnest. They were ready to take all measures which might aid China in eradicating- opium, but they wished to do it thoroughly. He moved the adoption of the resolution as amended by him.
The vote resulted as follows :—
For the amendment. Against.
Great Britain. China.
The Austro-Hungarian Delegation reserved its vote.
Monsieur MIYA0KA.—" I understand that the reservation of a vote is permissible only with the concurrence of the Commission as a whole."
The CHAIRMAN. " As the Chair understands it, a reasonable time for consideration
should be given, and then if the vote is not recorded, the Chair would have to rule that the
Delegate abstained from A,oting—but a reasonable time ought to be given, and, unless ordered
otherwise in the present instance, the Chair would rule that this procedure should be
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Monsieur MIYAOKA.—" I would beg to remind the Chinese Delegation that we are at a critical moment. There is danger that their resolution will be rejected by the Commission on the ground of a tie vote arising under the reserve. Considering that several of the Deleg,a-tions here present would not like to place themselves in the position of opposing some particular Government which has a particular Concession, I believe that the whole difficulty would be obviated if the Chinese Delegation could see their way to accede to the amendment proposed by Monsieur RATARD."
Mr. PANG.—" I beg to propose an amendment to the amendment of the French Delegation, and that is, instead of the words as soon as they nzay deem it advisable the words as soon as possible be substituted."
The CHIEF COMMISSIONER FOR FRANCE.—" I am sorry that I cannot agree to the imperative tone of the words as soon as possible. I would also like to voice my strong objections to the sentence used by Mr. PANG relating to private interests. I consider it an insult to my Government, and would ask of the Chair whether such remark is in order?"
The PRESIDENT.—" Mr. PANG is not in order; he will perhaps explain the remark objected to."
Mr. 'PANG stated that lie did not mean the words private interests to apply to private individuals.
The PRESIDENT.—" The Chair considers that a reasonable time has been allowed the Deleg-ate for Austria-Hungary to record his vote."
Dr. RoSSLER.—" I would beg to remind the House that in one of the earlier Sessions it was agreed that every proposal and amendment should be handed to each Delegation in writing for the reason that not all are able to follow alterations made in the course of debate, and I think this a reasonable method. I do not know my honourable friend's reason for withholding his vote, but I think that it is only fair that he should be allowed to do so. The Chief Commissioner for Portugal has reserved his vote on every, single occasion."
Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT.—" I would ask the Chinese Delegation. to reconsider the language in the last clause of the resolution. It is only a verbal distinction, and I do not think the Chinese Deleg-ation have any intention of using an imperative term."
Replying, Mr. 'PANG said that if it was the desire of the majority of the House, the Chinese Delegation was prepared to fall in with Monsieur RATARD'S suggestion, but he would like the \vord possible to take the place of aa'visable.
Monsieur RATARD havin,g agreed to this slight change, the resolution as amended by him was again put to the vote and adopted unanimously.
Mr. 'PANG KUO-AN, moving the adoption of the third Chinese resolution, said : " Iu submitting this resolution I do not think that the Chinese Delegation need make a long speech. The evils arising from so-called anti-opium medicines are so well recognised that it would seem almost a waste of time to speak of them at length before this House. Everyone who has observed the conditions in China knows what a danger anti-opium pills and medicines constitute in this Empire. Every writer who has written on the opium evil mentions anti-opium medicines as a greater danger than the opium habit itself, and as I stated on a previous occasion, Sir John Jordan has on more than one occasion remarked to our Foreign Office that it would be quite futile for China to make efforts to stop the consumption of opium smoking and to allow the habit of morphia eating to continue and spread over the Empire; and he strongly urged upon our Government to see that the evil is eradicated concurrently, with the abolition of the smoking habit. It would, therefore, seem superfluous for us to appeal to the co-operation of the various Delegations here in this respect. I might add, however, that while it is a deplorable fact that our Chinese people are the most interested in the manufacture and sale of these harmful medicines, the nationals of other countries also have a share in the trade. For instance, in the International Settlements in Shanghai we find British, French, Austrian and Japanese druggists, and others, selling- these so-called anti-opium medicines. We have
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had many of these samples analysed, and, with one notable exception, all of the samples analysed contained either opium or morphia. I may say also, and I crave the pardon of my Japanese friends for drawing attention to this fact, that a sample of pill manufactured by a Japanese firm commands the largest sale in China, and it goes to all corners of our Empire, owing to the enterprising spirit of the manufacturer. But we are most gratified to know that Japan is more than willing to assist China to drive these harmful drugs out of the market ; that all China has need to do is to draw the attention of the Japanese authorities, who will at all times be prepared to lend their fullest co-operation. We therefore feel confident that this resolution will meet W ith the s)mpathy and support of this House and I need not further take up time by explanatory remarks."
Monsieur Al tvA0KA.--" In presenting this statement in reference to this resolution it is necessary for me to sa) distinctly that the resolution as put forwaid has the profoundest sympathy of the Japanese Delegation. I egi et, however, that the question of anti-opium medicines, manufactured by Japanese subjects and sold by Japanese merchants in China, was not brought to the attention of the Japanese Government before. In Aug-,ust, 19°8, this Delegation was organised in Japan as a Commission to make investigations into the question of opium, morphia and other derivatives, as far as Japan was concerned. As I stated in presenting our report to you, we followed the line of investigation which was presented and laid before us by the Government of the United States. In the course of our investigations W e found that there were unofficial rumours, statements from unofficial sources—travellers and others—that so-called anti-opium pills, manufactured presumably in Japan, or manufactured in Shanghai and elsewhere by Japanese subjects from morphia or other drugs imported into Japan, were finding a large sale. It was a matter of profound regret and astonishment to us that such a state of affairs remained unknown. This Commission as then organised in toto was very much hampered in its
ork, as one of its ablest members was stationed in Formosa. The work of the Com-mission was therefore naturally unavoidably delayed, but a thorough investigation of the archives of the Department for Foreign Affairs showed us that no official report has been received from the Japanese officials in the towns in China. They were therefore instructed to report. About the time that we were preparing to leave Japan for this Cominission, reports \ ere being received in the Foreign Office giving the details as requested. Before leaving Japan we made arrangements that all samples which might arrive were to be promptly forwarded to the Hygienic Laboratory for Home Affairs, to be carefully examined by chemists who are employed in that laboratory under the direction of Dr. Tahara, and that all the reports from the Consular Officers in China should be forwarded to us. We have thus had the opportunity of seeing all the reports, and have the satisfaction of knoi,ving that these so-called anti-opium pills have been subjected to careful analysis at the Tokyo laboratory. We were most anxious as to when we might be able to present the result of such analysis, and Dr. Tahara has telegraphed to his subordinates in the Tokyo laboratory for the results. We have received an answer to the effect that they were nearly through with the work, but that they were not quite ready to forward to him the results of their analysis. From this you will see that, as soon as this subject was brought to the attention of the Japanese Government, they haAe promptly taken action to make a thorough investigation, and you need no assurance fro^-n me that the Japanese Government will do everything in its power to prohibit the sale and distribution of drugs detrimental to health in China. I would not like to place myself as in any way objecting to the most reasonable resolution put forward by China, but the point to' which I beg- to draw the attention of the Chinese Delegation is the fact that no communication has been made to the Japanese officials, who are well able to deal with the matter. Under such circumstances I have great doubts whether this is the proper procedure that should be followed, and I therefore hope that the Chinese Delegation will not press for a vote on this resolution."
Monsieur RATARD.—" I would like to ask the Chinese Deleg-,ation what they consider to be 'qualified medical advice'? Is anyone who represents himself to be a doctor in China a qualified medical adviser? Another matter I want to draw the attention of the Chinese Deleg-ation to is that the sale of some of the products referred to is not prohibited by our Treaties. It would be much better for China to arrange diplomatically with regard to these products, as has been done in the case of morphia."
Mr. PANG.—" As a general rule we do not consider our Chinese doctors as qualified medical practitioners except those who have taken a medical course in some recognised
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medical institution either abroad or in China, but those who usually set themselves up as doctors we do not regard as coming under the category of medical practitioners. The Honourable Chief Commissioner for France referred to the action that has already been taken with regard to Morphia. In reply, I beg to state that as regards morphia we have very stringent laws, in fact I may say that decapitation is the penalty for anyone caught openly selling morphia for illegitimate purposes. But there are no laws in China, nor, as far as WC are aware, in foreign countries, against so-called anti-opium medicines. Of course it is a well-known fact that in the settlements in Shanghai these medicines are not sold under the head of poisons. No druggist thinks of putting a label on his box or bottle naming the ingredients of his medicines, or labelling them as poisons. It therefore goes out in the form of medicine which does not come under the operation of the law, and in order to check the spread of these drugs the Chinese Delegation is of opinion that separate legislation ought to be taken whereby these harmful drugs may be eliminated from the market. It is a well-lcnown fact that hardly a boat goes into the interior of China but carries more or less of these packages of so-called medicines, and our country is being flooded with the poison. It is most important for China, if we are to put an effective stop to opium and its derivatives, that we should take into consideration the question of anti-opium medicines, and for this reason we have ventured to bring this resolution forward for the favourable consideration of this House."
Monsieur MIYAOKA.—" The remarks which have just been offered by Mr. TANG seem to me to emphasize rather than to negative the suggestion that this is a proper subject on which the Chinese Government should approach the Governments concerned through the ordinary diplomatic channels. It seems entirely out of place for this Commission to be voting upon a matter which would easily be adjusted by ordinary diplomatic process."
Dr. WRIGHT.—" I quite agree with what both the French Delegation and the Japanese Delegation have suggested, viz., that this is a subject for diplomatic neg-otiations, but I think it could be carried through more quickly if this Commission as a whole called the attention of the various Governments by this resolution to the facts of the case."
Monsieur MIVAOKA.—" I wOUld beg to add that my- remark does not imply that I am not going to call the attention of the Imperial Japanese Government to the matter. On the contrary, I am going to make the strongest recommendation to the Imperial Government; only my point is that, in my opinion, this is hardly a proper subject on which to take the vote of the Commission. I would respectfully sug-gest to the Chinese Delegation that a similar recom-mendation be made to the Government in Peking, suggesting this as a proper subject for diplomatic negotiations, and as far as Japan is concerned we are more than willing to make the most sympathetic allusion to this phase of the question, for we have in this Delegation one g-entleman who is charged with the difficult problem of suppressing the evil in Formosa, W13 0 is fully aware that no measures for the suppression of the opium habit is productive of results unless this phase of the question be properly attended to."
Monsieur RATARD.—" We cannot interfere with leg-itimate trade in foreign concessions. It would not be so easy to control the sale of anti-opium medicines as the Chinese Delegation think. We are heartily with them, however, and we would like very much to see measures taken for preventing the unrestrained sale of such remedies. I beg- to moN,.e as an amendment the following resolution :—
That the International Opium Commission recommends strongly that each Delegation move its Government to enter into negotiations with the Chinese Government, with a Niew to effective and prompt measures being taken in the various foreign concessions and settlements in China for the prohibition of the trade and manufacture of such anti-opium medicines as contain opium or its derivatives.'"
Mr. T'ANG.—" I need hardly say how gratified we are with the remarks that have been made by the Chief Commissioner for Japan, but with all due respect perhaps we might be allowed to remind him that the attitude he has taken in this matter has only reference' to his own country, and that is why it is the desire of the Chinese nation, as represented by our Delegation here, to secure, if possible, a unanimous expression from this House condemning the anti-opium medicines as sold in the foreign settlements and in China—to secure, I say, if possible, a general expression of disapproval from this House and the general assurance that each Delegation will urge upon its respective Government the necessity- of taking measures to
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prevent the manufacture and sale of these injurious medicines in their Settlements and Concessions in China. In other words, since each civilised country has its own laws and statutes against the sale of poisons and all medicines containing poisons, we do not think we are asking too much if we request each civilised power to inalce its laws effective in its respective Concessions and Settlements in China, that is to say, to transfer the operation of its laws as existing in its own country over to China, where the Powers enjoy .extra-territorial rights for their subjects. Of course China will do her part in preventing her people from participating in this illegal traffic, but it appears to us that unless we have the practical co-operation of all the civilised Powers who are represented in the various Concessions in China, the task of eliminating- the anti-opium evil will be too much for us to overcome, and ,ultimate success will be very doubtful, if not impossible."
Dr. WRIGHT.—" I wish to move that the question be put to the vote."
The resolution as amended by Monsieur RATARD was adopted unanimously on being put to the vote.
Mr. TANG moved the adoption of the fourth of the Chinese resolutions. After a .desultory discussion with regard to the wording, it was decided to defer the consideration of the resolution until after the mid-day recess.
Before adjourning, the Chair reverted to the objection which had been taken by the Chief Commissioner for Germany to his ruling in connection with the reserved vote of the Austro-Hungarian Delegation. Hitherto in the reservation of a vote the House had not been put in the predicament of having its business suspended indefinitely, and under such circumstances the Chair did not consider that it would be right to allow the reservation. Technically, the objection raised by the Chief Commissioner for Germany was a sound one.
The Commission adjourned at 12.4o p.m.
On re-assembling at 2.30 p.m., the PRESIDENT declared that the business before the House was the further discussion of the fourth Chinese resolution.
Mr. T'ANG Kuo-AN announced that during the interval lie had held a consultation with Dr. RiiSSLER and Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT, and that by their suggestion he now wished to move the following in the place of his original resolution :—
That the International Opium Commission recommends that each Delegation move its Government to apply its pharmacy laws to its subjects in the Consular districts, Concessions and Settlements in China.
Monsieur RATARD stated that he would have no hesitation in accepting the resolution as altered.
The resolution was then put to the vote and adopted unanimously.
On the suggestion of Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT it was decided to appoint a Committfee of three to superintend the printing of the proceedings of the Commission, after the close o the sittings. The Right Hon. Sir CECIL CLEMENTI SMITH also moved the appointment of a Committee for revising the resolutions that had been adopted. It would be necessary to modify the language in certain instances, and to filially pass the resolutions at the next meeting.
The Chair selected Dr. WRIGHT, Mr. BRUNYATE and Mr. PANG KUO-AN as the Committee of Revision and Sir ALEXANDER HOSIE, Monsieur BRENIER and Mr. -PANG KUO-AN as the Printing Committee. At Mr. 'PANG'S request, Mr. J. L. CHALMERS, Associate Delegate for China, was permitted to act for him on the latter Committee.
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Monsieur RATARD, on behalf of the French Delegation, made the following-, statement:—
"Although neither French Indo-China nor France are opium-producing countries, and) although the use of opium is practically, unknown in France, and has scarcely any ill-effects. on the native population of her colonies, the French Delegation desires to announce before-the closing of this International Opium Commission that—
(a) As concerns French Indo-China, the Govermnent will continue strictly to• observe the measures described in the Report presented to the Commission, which have already had the effect of considerably reducing the importation of raw opium and the consumption of chandu
(b) As concerns Kuangchowwan, where the French Government is tied by a contract with the present farm until the end of the year 191i, the French Deleg-ation consider it to be their duty towards their Chinese colleagues on the Commission to announce that it is the firm intention of the Governor-General of Indo-China to apply to the whole territory of Kuangchowwan similar measures to those which may have been effectively adopted by China at the time when the contract with the opium farm expires."
The PRESIDENT.—" The Chair would remind the House that there are still some reports to be presented, which presumably will not be ready in time. There is still the report on Trade Statistics, report on Revenue Statistics, Tariffs, etc., and also one from the Committee on Ways and Means."
Mr. LAIDLAW.—" On behalf of the Committee for Trade Statistics, I am sorry to say we are not quite ready. There has been a great deal of work involved in translation of-figures into one common language and we don't expect the report will be ready until Saturday morning."
Dr. WRIGHT.--." May I suggest that in that case the different reports be incorporated. in the proceedings."
A discussion then tool: place respecting the assessment of any expenditure over and. above funds in hand, after which Dr. TENNEY moved an adjournment of the House until' Saturday morning.
Sir CECIL CLEMENTI SMITH expressed the hope that the last meeting of the-Commission might take place the following day.
It was eventually decided to adjourn until the following day at 2.3o p.m.
Dr. TENNEY said that Ile would like to tell the Delegates that Ile had seen demonstra-tions given by Mr. TOWNS in connection with his cure for opium smoking, which had previously been referred to, and that in his judgment, and in the judgment of men more competent than himself, those demonstrations were highly satisfactory. It seemed to him a matter well worth looking into.
Dr. HAMILTON WRIGHT supported the last speaker. He said that Ile had always opposed from a professional point of view any serious consideration of Mr. Towns' retnedy until it had been made public, but now that it had been made public he had no hesitation in expressing the opinion that the remedy was an excellent one, and had successfully accomplished the cure of many patients. He concluded his remarks by inviting the experts on the Commission to meet him for the purpose of making observations in their private capacity.
Monsieur RATARD having read extracts from two letters which Ile had received from, French officials resident in Szechwan, relative to the continued cultivation of the poppy in that province, the House adjourned at 4.3o p.m.