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NOTES PDF Print E-mail
Written by Louis Lewin   
Monday, 01 February 2010 00:00


1. Into the heart of Nature
No creature will ever penetrate; Lucky he to whom she shows Her outward surface.
2. g4 aprig pev )f!tp gym* to fipazi) St' ainiiv rr)v oAni5rrira no Se eetapco crt5.upurov eyevero.
3. L. Lewin, Gifte und Gegengifte, ix, Intemation. Medizinischer Kongress, 1909; Chemiker Zeitung, 1909, No. 134; Beitrage zur Lehre der Immunitat gegen Gifte, 3. Teile, Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 1898 and 1899.
4. L. Lewin, Die Nebenwirkungen der Arzneimittel, 2nd and 3rd Ed., 1899, p. 16; Internat. Congress, Budapest, 1909, p. 10; Enzyklopad. d. Medizin, Article Morphin, 1910; Die Wirkungen von Arzneimitteln und Giften auf das Auge, 1st and 3nd Ed.
5. L. Lewin, Untersuchungen uber den Begriff der kumulativen Wirkung, Deutsche Medizin. Wochenschrift, 1899, No. 43.
6. Santesson, Skandinay. Archiv. far Physiologie, vol. xxv, 1911.
7. L. Lewin, Beitrage zur Lehre von der Immunitat gegen Gifte, Deutsche Medizin. Wochenschrift, 1898, p. 373.
8. L. Lewin Lehrbuch der Toxikologie, where cases of immunity against many other poisons are cited.


1. L. Lewin, Die Nebenwirksungen der Arzneimittel, all editions. EUPHORICA: MENTAL SEDATIVES
1. At a later date the town of Sicyon was called Mekone, i.e., Town of Poppies, on account of the cultivation of poppies carried on there.
2. D. Lewin, Die Gifte in der Weltgeschichte, 1921.
3. Virgil, Georgics, i, 78.
4. Virgil, Aeneid, iv, 486; also Ovid, Fasti, iv, 532, 547, 661.
5. Bottiger, Ideen, ii, 496.
6. Silius, De Bello Punico, x, 353.
7. Sextus Empiricus, Hypotyposeon, ed. Becker: Avatc Se Kai iiniccovElov reocapa; 6Afgrag 0.4,6avE.
8. Prosper Alpini, De medicina Aegyptorum, Lugduni Batay., 1745: Longo tempore sic illi assuescuni, ui, mox, vel trium etiam drachmarum pondus aliqui tuto per os assumere audeani.
9. Confessions of an English Opium-Eater, London, 1821,
10. Wells, Middle Kingdom, quoted in Lamotte, The Opium Monopoly, 1920. These works with their recent statistics have frequently been used in this chapter.
11. Stotzner, Ins unerforschte Tibet, 1924, p. 106.
12. North China Herald, 1910; New York Times, 1919; Weale in Asia, 1919; Macdonald, Trade Politics and Christianity, 1916.
13. "Kashkash," "chaschag" is the Arabic name for poppy, an onomatopoeic designation which represents the noise produced when shaking the ripe seeds in the capsule.
14. "I was warned that he who sleeps among the poppies falls into deep and profound dreams. On waking he retains the traces of his folly; his parents and his friends seem but shadows."
15. L. Lewin, Berlin Klin. Wochenschrift, 1885, p. 321.
16. L. Lewin, Deutsche Juristenzeitung, 1908, No. 5. See also Die Fruchtabireibung durch Gifte, 4th Ed., 1925.
17. Burgerliches Gesetzbuch, §6.
18. L. Lewin, Die Bestrafung der alkoholischen Trunkenheit, Munchner Medizinische Wochenschrift, 1921, No. 46.
19. You who yearn for the month of May, pluck a bunch of violets. You who know you are loved, adorn yourself with the beauty of roses. But the child of unhappiness who desires forgetfulness
Chooses a couch of poppies as comfort.
When the interminable night painfully tortures, When he tosses in anguish on his bed of suffering; When everything is asleep and the ticking clock Hesitates in its sleepy course.
0, he will bless you, the consolation of the martyr Whom an ingenious friend has brought you as cure; Mixed with the beverage of peace the God
Will close the burning eyes in rest.
The benevolent divinity approaches on his chariot Drawn in silence by a pair of owls; pour, oh pour Pearly dew that the thirsty soul be refreshed, Wonderful king of the realm of dreams!
Conjure youth before his delighted spirit,
Let him contemplate once more the radiant days of the past, Blow the perfumed air of May into his soul obscured by misery, And hope of a better future!
20. Koenig, Berl. Klin. Wochenschrift, 1919.
21. L. Lewin, Berl. Klin. Wochenschrift, 1885, p. 326.
22. The intense action of cocaine when introduced in this way may be explained by the existence of several arterial and venous systems uniting the nasal cavity with the cavities of the cranium and the corresponding lymphatic channels.
23. H. Maier, Der Kokainismus, 1926. The mental disturbances due to cocainism are described in this work from personal experience.
24. L. Lewin, Die Nebenwirkungen der Arzneimittel, 3rd ed.
25. Oppe, Arzitl. Sachverstandigen-Zeitung, 1923, No. 1.

1. L. Lewin, Deutsche Revue, 1922, p. 57.
2. L. Lewin, Furcht and Grauen als Unfallsursache. Obergutachten uber Unfallvergiftungen, Leipzig, 1912, p. 356.
3. L. Lewin, Die Gifte in der Weltgeschichte, 1920, chapter on tropeines.
4. Sahagun, Historia general de las Cosas de Nueva Espana, Lib. x, cap. xxix, §2: "... ellso mismos descubrieron, y usaron primero la raiz que llaman peiotl, y los que la comian y tomaban, la usaban en lugar de vino ... y se juntaban en un Llano despues de haberlo bebido, donde bailaban y cantaban de noche y de dia a su placer y esto el primer dia, porque el siguiente lloraban todos mucho ..." Also Lib. xi, cap. vii, § 1: "Hay otra yerba como tunas de la tierra, se llama peiotl, es blanca, hacase acia la parte del norte, los que la comen 6 beben yen visions espantosas 6 irrisibiles; dura esta borrachera dos 6 tres dias y despues se quita; es commun manjar de los Chichimecas, pues los mantiene y da animo para pelear y no tener miedo, ni sed ni hambre, y dicen que los guarda de todo peligro."
5. Peyotl signifies something white and shiny, a white floccule. The cocoon of the silkworm is also called peyotl. Toca-peyotl is the spider's web.
6. Hernandez, Historia plantar. Novae Hispaniae, Madrid, 1721, Lib. xv, cap. xxv, p. 70.
7. Bartolom. de Alua, Confessionario mayor y menor en lengue mexicana . . . Y platicas contra las supersticiones de idolatria . . . 1634: "As creydo en suetios en el Peyote, Ololiuhque, en el fuego, en los Buhos, Lechusas ..." (Ololiuhqui is a species of Datura, probably datura meteloides .)
8. L. Lewin, First Treatise: "Ober Anhalonium Lewinii Henn.," Archiv. far experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, vol. xxiv, 1888, p. 401. Second Treatise: "Ober Anhalonium Lewinii und andere Cacteen," Archiv. far experimentelle Pathologie. vol. xxxiv, 1894; The Therapeutic Gazette, 1888; Pharmazeutische Zeitung, 1895, No. 41.
9. Michaelis, Beitrage zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Gattungen, Echinocactus, Mamillaria und Anhalonium, 1896.
10. Heffter, Archiv. far experim. Pathologie und Pharmakologie, vol. xxxiv, 1894, and vol. xl, 1898.
11. L. Lewin, "Ober Anhalonium Lewinii und andere giftige Kakteen," Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 1894, vol. xii, Part 9.
12. ". una raiz que claman Peyote, a quieno dan tanta vereacion como si fuera una deidad . . ."
13. The Huichols call the god Ta-Te-awa-li.
14. This is the result of an experimental research which I suggested to Herr Jaensch.
15. Berginer, Experimentelle Psychosen durch Mescalin, Vortrag auf der sudwestdeutschen Psychiater-Versammlung in Erlangen, 1922.
16. Majun is a saccharine preparation containing hemp to which opium, the seeds of datura, and other substances are said to be added.
17. B. Meissner in Ebert, Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, vol. v, p. 117. I am indebted to Dr. John Loewenthal for this information.
18. L. Lewin, Lehrbuch der Toxicologie, 2nd ed., p. 379.
19. Amoldi Abbatis Lubecensis, Chronica Slavorum, 1. iii, c. xxxvii, p. 349; 1. vii, c. x, p. 523: ". . . eis cultros quasi ad hoc negotium sacratos, administrat, et tunc poculos eos quodam, quo in ecstasin vel amentiam rapiantur, inebriat et eis magicis suis quaedam somnia phantastica, gaudiis et deliciis, imo nugis plena, ostendit ."
20. L. Lewin, Die Gifte in der Weltgeschichte, 1920, p. 207.
21. Artbauer, Rifpiraten, 1911.
22. According to Hugel, not only the comon people but also the Brahmins smoke the dried blossoms.
23. L. Lewin, Die Gifte in der Weltgeschichte, Berlin, 1920.
24. Ibid.
25. L. Lewin, Die Gifte in der Weltgeschichte, 1920, p. 4.
26. See p. 116.
27. Acacia leaves are said to be added to pituri.
28. Reinberg, Journale de la Societe des Americanistes de Paris, t. xiii, p. 25, 1921. The statements about curare which are borrowed from medical literature have nothing in common with the substance in question.
29. See section on Agaricus muscarius, pp. 102-107.

1. Erman-Ranke, Agypten, 2nd ed., p. 288.
2. Erman-Ranke, loc. cit.
3. Soma or homa is said to be periploca aphylla, sarcostemma brevistigma, setaria glauca, ephedra vulgaris and other plants. But none of these plants is able to give rise to such effects as have been attributed to soma.
4. A beverage prepared from this plant is called kiwa in the south of the Gran Chaco.
5. Spirits obtained from molasses are probably also called samshu.
6. Ambroise, Pare, Opera, p. 1154.
7. Bobba u. Mauro, Alpine Schriften des Priesters Achille Ratti, 1925, p. 44.
8. Montaigne, Essays, Book ii, chap. 2
9. Balusius, Capitularia regum Francorum, Venetiis, 1722, pp. 257, 177, 782.
10. ". . . a communione statuimus submovendum aut corporali subdendum esse supplicio."
11. L. Lewin, Die Restrafung der alkoholischen Trunkenheit (Kritik des Strafgesetzentwurfes von 1919), Munchn. Med. Wochenschrift, 1921, No. 45.
12. L. Lewin, Die Nebenwirkungen der Arzneimittel, 1893, p. 67; 1899, p. 51.
13. L. Lewin, Die Nebenwirkungen der Arzneimittel, 1893, etc., chapter on Inhalations-Anasthetika.

1. L. Lewin, Die Nebenwirkungen der Arzneimittel, 3rd ed.
2. L. Lewin, Ober Piper Methysticum (Kawa-Kawa). Monographie, Berlin, 1886. Berlin. klin. Wochenschrift, 1886, No. 1. A Lecture on Piper Methysticum, Detroit, 1886.

1. L. Lewin, Ober Areca Catechu, Chavica Betle and das Betelkauen. Eine Monographie, Stuttgart, 1889.
2. Young nuts are stated to contain less arecoline than older ones.
3. In Yemen only an infusion of the husks of coffee is consumed.
4. Leonharti Rauwolfen, Aigentliche Beschreibung der Raisz in die Morgenlander, 1582, p. 102.
5. Carl Ritter, Vergleichende Erdkunde von Arabien, vol. ii, p. 579.
6. Steindorff, Durch die Lybische Wuste, 1904, p. 88.
7. Silvestre de Sacy, Chrestomathie arabe , vol. i, p. 439.
8. Redi, Bacco in Toscana, Ditirambo, Napoli, 1742, p. 6.
9. Virchow, Nahrungs- and Genussmittel, 1868.
10. L. Lewin, Die Nebenwirkungen der Arzneimittel, 3rd ed.
11. L. Lewin, Die Nebenwirkungen der Arzneimittel, all editions.
12. Lyre, murmur sweetly
Hardly touched by light fingers!
You sing of the most delicate thing
The world contains.
It is in India, the land of mystery,
Where spring always reigns.
Where tea, itself a myth.
Lives and loves and flourishes.
Vom leichten Finger kaum geregt!
Ihr tonet zu des Zartsten Preise,
Des Zactsten, was die Erde hegt.
In Indiens mythischem Gebiete,
Wo Frahling ewig sich ernent,
0 Tee, du selber eine Mythe,
Verlebst du deine Bliitenzeit.
13. These tables probably have little claim to accuracy at the present time.
14. "Joudz ez-zenj is a fruit of the size of an apple, somewhat elongated, wrinkled and angular. It contains seeds similar to cardamoms which are flat (round), brown (red) and have an aromatic odour. They are brought from the mountainous territory of the Berbers and applied against flatulent colic."
15. The "Cola vera" of Herr Schumann does not exist. The many "new" species of kola have been discovered without their chemical properties being examined. I have pointed out that we cannot consider a morphologic examination sufficient and decisive in this respect. (L. Lewin, Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 1894, Heft 9.)
16. Kolanine or kola-red, an amorphous powder insoluble in water, is said to be a glucosid. This has in the meantime been rejected and no chemical or pharmaco-dynamic effects are stated to appear. A so-called Tanno-glucosid which is said to split into caffeine, glucose, and kola-red caffeine is stated to be a mixture of kolatin and caffeine.
17. The recent opinion that the active principle (mattein) is not identical with caffeine must be rejected. But it is possible that other purine bases are contained in maté beside caffeine.
18. It has been reported that an infusion containing alcohol obtained through fermentation is also drunk. Eryngium aquaticum or lobelia inflata are said to be added to the infusion.
19. Guarana (uarana) signifies a creeping plant in the language of the Tupis.
20. L. Lewin, Die Gifte in der Weltgeschichte , 1920.
21. L. Lewin, Die Nebenwirkungen der Arzneimittel, 2nd and 3rd eds., and L. Lewin in Lewin and Guillery, Die Wirkungen von Arzneimitteln and Giften auf das Auge, 2nd ed., 1907, Bd. I.
22. L. Lewin, Die Nebenwirkungen der Arzneimittel, 2nd and 3rd eds.
23. It has been found that young growing rabbits fed daily with 1/2000 gr. of arsenious acid developed physically to a greater degree than those not so treated. This effect of the arsenic irritation on the tissues, however, is only temporary, and is soon succeeded by contrary results. This irritating effect, which is liable to lead to an augmentation of growth and cell-formation, is far less efficacious in adult animals. The results of these experimental investigations throw no light on the consumption of arsenic by man.
24. L. Lewin, Ober eigentiimliche Quecksilberanwendungen, Berlin. klin. Wochenschrift, 1899, No. 13.

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