FOUR chapters of this book originally appeared in slightly different form elsewhere. Chapter 3 appeared in the American Journal. of Sociology, LIX (November, 1953); Chapter 5 appeared in the same journal, LVII (September, 1951). Both are reprinted here with the permission of the Journal and the University of Chicago Press. Chapter 4 appeared in Human Organization, 12 (Spring, 1953), and is reprinted here with the permission of the Society for Applied Anthropology. Chapter 6 appeared in Social Problems, 3 (July, 1955), and is reprinted with the permission of the Society for the Study of Social Problems.
The material in Chapters 3 and 4 was originally prepared as a Master's thesis in Sociology at the University of Chicago, under the direction of Everett C. Hughes, W. Lloyd Warner, and Harvey L. Smith. Dan C. Lorde commented on an early draft of one of the papers.
I did the research on which Chapters 5 and 6 are based while I was a member of the staff of the Chicago Narcotics Survey, a project undertaken by the Chicago Area Projects, Inc., with the help of a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health. Harold Finestone, Eliot Freidson, Erving Goffman, Solomon Kobrin, Henry McKay, Anse1m Strauss, and the late R. Richard Wohl criticized early versions of these papers.
I am greatly indebted to Blanche Geer, who read and discussed several versions of the entire manuscript with me. My thinking on questions of deviance, as on all matters sociological, owes much to my friend and teacher, Everett C. Hughes.
Dorothy Seelinger, Kathryn James, and Lois Stoops typed the several versions of the manuscript with patience and care.