3.1. General Prevention activities
Turkey has a number of school counsellors per province who are co-ordinated by the Gene-ral Directorate of Special Education and Counselling Services, at central level, and the provincial Guidance and Research Centres of the Ministry of National Education. In every city there are Direc-torates of National Education that work in line with the advices of Guidance and Research Centres where psychologists and psychological counsellors are registered. These school counselling servi-ces deal with any psychological problems of students. Using the school counselling services does not indicate a healthy cooperation. 'Cause co-operation is always depend upon the personal insight of the professional in question. In some instances they categorically refuse to be part of such a pro-cess and behave reluctant to collect the data. Students are always wellcomed by these services in case of emergency of any kind. Psychologists and psychological counsellors are entitled to contact directly with treatment centres. Families are considered as sine qua non in this process of helping.
These studies are not only directed to the drugs but they are also the general themes of co-unselling such as social acceptance, supporting all the development fields. The principals usually tend to refuse to have a drug problem for the sake of institution. They usually see the problem on personal grounds related to whether family or individual inborn traits. I case any pupil is diagnosed as a user this usually is perceived as a personal failure which also explains school failure. The ge-neral attitude is to expel the student in question from the school. Principals are quite keen such an information becomes public knowledge. They stubbornly demands official and written permission for the outsiders such as professionals of addiction.
On community basis there is a charter encompassing broadcasting rules in the subject. And the time of broadcasting are subject to certain regulations according to the hours where the off-springs come from the school besides house wives are also considered a target group in the sen-se of enhancing awareness.
Within the framework of our Drug Use and Prevention activities and as a result of the 2490 training activities organized by the personnel of Implementation and Liaison Unit since the year 2004, when TUBIM its training and awareness raising activities; we have reached 16147 teathers, 32791 parents, 18027 NGO members, 37939 public officials, 4316 private sector officials, 246026 high school and university students through conferences, press, written and visual training, compe-titions organized with the aim of preventing drug use and addiction.
3.2. Selected/Specific Prevention Activities
Consultants from United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) designed the UNICEF Psychoso-cial School Project (http://www.unicef.org/turkey/lf/eplg.html) that would be effective in reaching up to a quarter of a million children. A key point of the project was to strengthen both governmental and non-governmental resources at local and national levels. This would be achieved through a prog-ramme of continuous and gradually more intensive training by international authorities on trauma psychology. Eventually, selected school counsellors and members of a National Expert Team of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychological counsellors would become trainers in different com-ponents of the programme. The psychology Department at Ankara University designed a pre- and post-evaluation study and reported on the project in the Spring of 2001. It was decided to adopt the cascade model of training as being the fastest, most efficient course to take in implementing the pro-ect. A core group of experts would train a larger group of counsellors who would then debrief the teachers who would subsequently offer the intervention to the children.
Especially in Istanbul and Izmir, two big cities in Turkey, a prevention programme was carried out for worker who works in recretional and cargo field. Another work carried out by Youth and Sports General Directorate is: the training activity against drug usage provided to the participants in The Trainer Cultivation Courses. What is aimed in these training activities is to inform the trainers about how to keep the teenagers away from addictives and doping substances. Up to this day ne-arly 1000 trainers have participated in this training.
Special prevention programs aiming at schools and recreational centres are implemented by the police. Operational precautions against street dealers have been enhanced so as to keep drugs away from individuals and opportunities for one to one cooperation have been created through the establishment of mutual contacts with the school administrations and school family unions.
Furthermore, "Training Centres for Improvement of Driver Behaviours" have been established under the Provincial Health Directorates in 30 provinces and trainings on alcohol, harms of alcohol and its influence on driver behaviours are delivered to the drivers who disobey the traffic rules by driving under the influence of alcohol and thus whose driving licences are seized.