No Credit Check Payday Loans
ALL BOOKS
Seeds

Pharmacology

Substances
Overdose

JoomlaWatch Agent

Visitors hit counter, stats, email report, location on a map, SEO for Joomla, Wordpress, Drupal, Magento and Prestashop

JoomlaWatch Users

JoomlaWatch Visitors



54% United States  United States
11.3% United Kingdom  United Kingdom
5.9% Australia  Australia
5.6% Canada  Canada
3.3% Philippines  Philippines
2.2% Kuwait  Kuwait
2.1% India  India
1.6% Germany  Germany
1.5% Netherlands  Netherlands
1.1% France  France

Today: 184
Yesterday: 310
This Week: 1547
Last Week: 2303
This Month: 5359
Last Month: 5638
Total: 24124


APPENDIX L Indexes of Family Influence PDF Print E-mail
Written by Isidor Chein   
Tuesday, 29 March 2011 00:00

APPENDIX L Indexes of Family Influence

TABLE L-1    Component Items of Index II Factors Conducive to Defective Superego Functioning
EARLY CHILDHOOD    RATIONALE*
15 Any mother figure a socially deviant or severe parental
model    2
16 Any father figure a socially deviant or severe parental
model    2
24 Overt threat of harsh punishment or loss of love used as
form of discipline    3, 7
25 Parental standards either rigid or vague    4
3 Any mother figure passionate, objective, cool, or hostile in
affection for boy (other-than-warm relationship)    5
4 Any father figure passionate, objective, cool, or hostile in
affection for boy (other-than-warm relationship)    5
14 For a significant part of period, boy did not have father
figure or mother figure in his life    1
LATE CHILDHOOD
3 Any mother figure passionate, objective, cool, or hostile in
affection for boy (other-than-warm relationship)    5
4 Any father figure passionate, objective, cool, or hostile in
affection for boy (other-than-warm relationship)    5
ADOLESCENCE PERIOD
24 Overt threat of harsh punishment or loss of love used as a
form of discipline    3, 7
25 Parental standards either rigid or vague    4
PRESENT
15 Any mother figure a socially deviant or severe parental
model    2
EARLY CHILDHOOD    RATIONALE*
16 Any father figure a socially deviant or severe parental
model    2
PERIOD NOT SPECIFIED
1 Institutionalization of boy at any time in childhood    1, 3
17 Boy frustrated in his wishes, overindulged, or both    6
18 Boy experienced highly intense or extremely weak mother—son relationship or both    5
19 Boy experienced highly intense or extremely weak father—
son relationship or both    5
20 Mother had indifferent attitude to the physical needs of
boy (some or gross neglect as pattern)    3, 6
23 One parent attempted to subvert other's attempts at discipline
• See below.
Rationale for Composition of Index II
Factors Conducive to Defective Superego Functioning
For the purposes of this study, optimal superego functioning was defined as the operation of internalized moral standards which influence behavior in a realistic and socially acceptable manner and without a pervasive sense of guilt. Normal superego development was assumed to develop by identification with parent figures and the assumption of their moral standards as a result of childhood dependency and fear of loss of parental love. We have delineated two major types of defective superego functioning: (1) the superego that consists of poorly internalized standards and/ or socially ineffective operation of these standards (the "weak" superego) and (2) overly strong, harsh, and punitive superego functioning.
Considering that either of these extreme kinds of superego would lead to difficulty of functioning in present-day American society, environmental influences toward one or the other or both are influences toward defective superego development. Separate subindexes (II-A and II-B) were developed to measure family experiences conducive to each of these two forms. The present index, however, attempts to measure the degree to which any of these experiences interfering with optimal superego development were present in the life of the boy.
Each of the family experiences listed in our index would tend to impair optimal superego functioning as described in the following paragraphs.
1. The absence of parental models interferes with the development of dependency and identification, thus lessening the opportunity for the taking-over of parental standards.
2. Deviant or severe parental models may lead to the internalization of these standards of morality by the child.
3. Harshness, chronic punishment, and lack of affection interferes with the development of dependency on parental love. This situation tends to prevent the internalization of parental standards and encourage a morality of expediency.
4. Rigidity of parental expectations leads to the incorporation of severe standards. If the parental standards for the boy are vague or inconsistent, this tends to lead to confusion about how he should act or to provocation as a way of extracting standards from his parent figures.
5. Overly strong dependency may lead to the incorporation of highly severe standards. On the other hand, insufficient dependency may result in a lack of motivation to retain the love of the parent by doing what he or she wants.
6. Chronic frustration of gratifications interferes with the development of dependency. Indulgence enhances childhood dependency and may result in a highly severe superego because of an intense fear of losing the love and services on which the child is dependent.
7. Frequent threats of loss of parental love may provoke strong guilt feelings in the child in reaction to ideas or acts of transgression. If the child is dependent on such love, this parental pattern tends to promote an overly strong superego.
TABLE L-2    Component Items of Index II-A
Factors Conducive to Overly
Strong and Severe Superego
EARLY CHILDHOOD    RATIONALE*
3 Any mother figure either passionate or warm in affection
for boy    4
4 Any father figure either passionate or warm in affection
for boy    4
15 Any mother figure a severe parental model    2
16 Any father figure a severe parental model    2
24 Threat of loss of love predominated as a form of disci-
pline    3
25 Rigid parental standards for boy    2
LATE CHILDHOOD
3 Any mother figure either passionate or warm in affection
for boy    4
4 Any father figure either passionate or warm in affection
for boy    4
ADOLESCENCE
24 Threat of loss of love predominated as a form of discipline    3
RATIONALE*
EARLY CHILDHOOD   
25    Rigid parental standards for boy    2
PRESENT   
15    Any mother figure a severe parental model    2
16    Any father figure a severe parental model    2
PERIOD NOT SPECIFIED   
1    Institutionalization of boy any time after early childhood    1
• See below.
Rationale for Composition of Index II—A
Factors Conducive to Overly Strong
and Severe Superego
The environmental prerequisites for the development of overly strong and severe superego functioning are similar to the requirements for an optimally functioning superego. These requirements are childhood dependency, fear of loss of parental love, and the consequent identification with parent figures and internalization of their moral standards. The difference in etiology is one of degree, in the extreme case resulting in excessive childhood dependency, a heightened fear of loss of parental love and consequent overidentification with parent figures, and the incorporation of inflexible standards of conduct.
Each of the family experiences listed in our index tend to exaggerate this normal development and produce an overly strong and severe superego. The rationale for each item is described in the following paragraphs.
1. Identification with rigid and authoritarian institutional standards leads, by a taking-over of the standards, to an overly severe and strong superego.
2. The pressure of severe parental models may lead to the internalization of rigid standards of morality.
3. A heightened fear of the loss of the love of parental figures provides motivation for the taking-over of parental standards of conduct to ensure against this loss.
4. Parental affection encourages dependency and the incorporation of parental standards in order to ensure against the loss of love.
Component Items of Index II-B
Factors Conducive to Weak
Superego Functioning
EARLY CHILDHOOD    RATIONALE*
1 Boy institutionalized    1
3 Any mother figure cool or hostile to boy    1
4 Any father figure cool or hostile to boy    1
TABLE L-3 
For a significant part of period, boy did not have father   
figure or mother figure in his life    1
15    Any mother figure an immoral model    2
16    Any father figure an immoral model    2
21    No clear parental roles in formation of discipline policy    3
22    Neither parent enforced discipline    3
25    Parental standards vague or inconsistent    3
24    Harsh punishment or its threat used as form of discipline    1
LATE CHILDHOOD   
3    Any mother figure cool or hostile to boy    1
4    Any father figure cool or hostile to boy    1
ADOLESCENCE   
21    No clear parental roles in formation of discipline policy    3
22    Neither parent enforced discipline    3
25    Parental standards vague or inconsistent    3
24    Harsh punishment or its threat used as form of discipline    1
PRESENT   
15    Any mother figure an immoral model    2
16    Any father figure an immoral model    2
PERIOD NOT SPECIFIED   
17    Boy frustrated in wishes and not overindulged    1
18    Boy experienced extremely weak mother—son relationship    1
19    Boy experienced extremely weak father—son relationship    1
20    Mother had indifferent attitude to physical needs of boy   
(gross neglect as pattern)    1
23    One parent attempted to subvert other's attempts at disci-   
pline    3
30    Impulse-orientation marked in mother figure    2
30    Impulse-orientation marked in father figure    2
• See below.
Rationale for Composition of Index II—B
Factors Conducive to Weak
Superego Functioning
This index was designed to measure family experiences that would interfere with the development of socially adequate internalized standards. Each of the listed experiences would:
1. discourage childhood dependency and identification with the parent;
2. encourage socially unacceptable behavior or discourage appropriate mechanisms of impulse control by the presence of bad potential models; or
3. make it difficult for the youngster to distinguish the parents' ideas of right and wrong.
An accumulation of such experiences would be expected to produce what we have defined as weak superego functioning.
TABLE L-4    Component Items of Index III        RATIONALE*
Factors Conducive to Inadequate       
Male Identification       
EARLY CHILDHOOD       
2    More than one mother figure present    1
4    Any father figure cool or hostile to boy    2
8    Father had unstable work history    2
12    Any father figure was subordinate adult in home    1
13    A mother figure was more important parent in boy's life    1
14    For a significant part of period, boy did not have father   
figure in his life    1
21    Mother figure made disciplinary policy    1
3    Any mother figure passionate in affection for boy    1
22    Discipline enforced primarily by mother figure    1
16    Any father figure a weak and immature personality    2
LATE CHILDHOOD   
2    More than one mother figure present    1
4    Any father figure cool or hostile to boy    2
8    Father had unstable work history    2
12    Father was dominant adult in home    1
13    A mother figure was more important parent in boy's life    1
14    For significant part of period, boy did not have father   
figure in his life    1
3    Any mother figure passionate in affection for boy    1
ADOLESCENCE   
21    Father figure made disciplinary policy    1
22    Discipline enforced primarily by mother figure    1
PERIOD NOT SPECIFIED   
18    Boy experienced highly intense mother—son relationship    1
19    Boy experienced extremely weak father—son relationship    2
26 Mother discouraged "rough" companions    1
7 Boy was only son with two or more sisters    1
19 Father performed maternal functions    2
" See below.
Rationale for Composition of Index III
Factors Conducive to Inadequate Male Identification
Each of the items in this index would tend to hamper adequate masculine identification in one of two ways:
1. Dominance of females in the family environment and in the life of the boy tends to encourage dependency on and identification with females, the development of feminine tastes, style, orientations, and the like.
2. The presence of a weak, unstable, or hostile father figure may interfere with the ability of the child to form a dependency relationship with a male and to wholeheartedly identify with him This situation (or the absence of male figures in his environment) diminishes the opportunities for the taking-over of masculine standards and behavior patterns.
TABLE L-5    Component Items of Index IV
Factors Hampering Development
of Realistic Aspirations with
Respect to Long-Range Goals
LATE CHILDHOOD AND EARLY ADOLESCENCE    RATIONALE*
32    Mother had unrealistically high or low aspirations for boy    2
32    Father had unrealistically high or low aspirations for boy    2
LATE ADOLESCENCE AND PRESENT   
32    Mother had unrealistically high or low aspirations for boy    2
32    Father had unrealistically high or low aspirations for boy    2
PERIOD NOT SPECIFIED   
31    Status-orientation marked in mother figure    3
31    Status-orientation marked in father figure    3
33    Mother figure unrealistically optimistic, feels that life is a   
gamble, or does not concern herself with own future    1
33    Father figure unrealistically optimistic, feels that life is a   
gamble, or does not concern himself with own future    1
30    Impulse-orientation marked in mother figure    1
30    Impulse-orientation marked in father figure    1
34    Family feels inferior or superior to neighbors    3
• See below.

Rationale for Composition of Index IV
Factors Hampering Development of Realistic Aspirations
with Respect to Long-Range Goals
This index was designed to measure the extent to which the parents of the boy had attitudes and goals deviating from those of realistically oriented middle-class persons. An item may be included in the index because the parental attitude is:
1. more characteristic of lower-class than middle-class orientation;
2. unrealistic and contrary to the usual middle-class attitude; or
3. an exaggeration of certain middle-class values at the expense of other middle-class values, such as the obtaining of gratification and satisfaction.
TABLE L-6    Component Items of Index V
Factors Encouraging Distrust of
Major Social Institutions
LATE CHILDHOOD AND EARLY ADOLESCENCE    RATIONALES
32 Mother had unrealistically low aspirations for boy    3
32 Father had unrealistically low aspirations for boy    3
LATE ADOLESCENCE AND PRESENT
32 Mother had unrealistically low aspirations for boy
32 Father had unrealistically low aspirations for boy    3
PERIOD NOT SPECIFIED
27 Mother did not trust authority figures    1
27 Mother tried to manipulate authority figures    1
27 Father did not trust authority figures    1
27 Father tried to manipulate authority figures    1
28 Mother aware of but made no use of organized commu-
nity resources    2
28 Father aware of but made no use of organized community
resources    2
33 Mother was unrealistically pessimistic or felt that life is a
gamble    4
33 Father was unrealistically pessimistic or felt that life is a
gamble    4
• See below.

Rationale for Composition of Index V
Factors Encouraging Distrust of Major Social
Institutions
The following paragraphs describe how the parental characteristics included in this index may, by example, create distrust of major social institutions on the part of the boy.
1. Distrustful and/ or manipulative attitudes by parents toward representatives of authority reflects a distrust of major social institutions. Such parental attitudes may encourage the development of similar attitudes in their children.
2. By example, parents who are aware of but do not make use of organized community resources encourage a similar attitude in their children. Such a pattern tends to breed distrust of such resources as possible avenues of gaining help when needed and of enriching life.
3. Unrealistic lack of parental aspirations for the boy may lead to a feeling that institutional and social arrangements prevent him from achieving what his interests and capacities allow.
4. Parental thinking about the future in unrealistic and pessimistic terms can lead to a basic attitude of distrust in the boy which may find expression in pessimistic and untrustful attitudes toward major social institutions. Seeing life as a gamble may lead to the attitude that a capricious fate determines our lives; a person cannot count on institutional arrangements, but should take his chances without any planning.

 

Our valuable member Isidor Chein has been with us since Saturday, 19 March 2011.

Show Other Articles Of This Author