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Reports - Le Dain Final Report


Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs

Commission d'enquete sur l'usage des drogues a des fins non medicales


December 14, 1973


The Honourable Marc Lalonde, P.C., M.P., Minister of National Health and Welfare, Brooke Claxton Building,
Tunney's Pasture,
Ottawa, Ontario.


The Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs, established under Order in Council P.C. 1969-1112, has the honour to submit the fourth and Final Report of its findings and recommendations.


Respectfully yours,


PART ONE Introduction
Section I    The Work of the Commission
Section II    Some Preliminary Observations
Section III    The Causes of Non-Medical Drug Use
Section IV    The General Proportions of the Problem

PART TWO Legal Controls
Section V    The Use of the Criminal Law Against Non-Medical Drug Use
Section VI    Control of Availability

Section VII Control of the User

PART THREE Treatment and Rehabilitation

Section VIII    General Observations Concerning Treatment
Section IX    Opiate Maintenance
Section X    The Therapeutic Community
Section XI    Social Rehabilitation

PART FOUR Non-Coercive Influences
Section XII    Research and Information
Section XIII    Drug Education
Section XIV    The Mass Media
Section XV    Innovative Services
Section XVI    The Family and Spiritual Influences

PART FIVE Additional Conclusions and Recommendations

Additional Conclusions and Recommendations of Marie-Andrée Bertrand

Additional Conclusions and Recommendations of Ian L. Campbell

Recommendations with Reference to the Law Respecting the Opiate Narcotic User


Appendix A    The Drugs and Their Effects
A.1    Introduction
A.2    Opiate Narcotics
A.3    Amphetamines and Amphetamine-Like Drugs
A.4    Cocaine
A.5    Hallucinogens
A.6    Alcohol
A.7    Barbiturates
A.8    Minor Tranquilizers and Non-Barbiturate Sedative-Hypnotics
A.9    Volatile Substances: Solvents and Gases
A.10    Tobacco

Appendix B    Legal and Illegal Sources and Distribution of Drugs
B.1    Introduction
B.2    Opiate Narcotics
B.3 Amphetamines and Amphetamine-Like Drugs
B.4 Cocaine
B.5 Hallucinogens
B.6    Alcohol
B.7    Minor Tranquilizers, Barbiturates and Other Sedative-Hypnotics
B.8    Volatile Substances: Solvents and Gases
B.9    Tobacco

Appendix C    Extent and Patterns of Drug Use
C.1    Introduction
C.2 Extent of Use
C.3    Characteristics of Users
C4 Patterns of Use

Appendix D    Motivation and Other Factors Related to Non-Medical Drug

D1 General

D2 Opiate Narcotics

D3 Amphetamines

D4 Hallucinogens

Appendix E Conviction Statistics for Drug Offenders

Appendix F    Some Legal Considerations
F.1    The Constitutional Framework
F.2    Whether, in Principle, the Criminal Law Should Be Used in the   
F.3    The Law with Respect to the Offences of Simple Possession,   
F.4    Applicable Provisions of the Criminal Code    
F.5    Juvenile Delinquency Legislation  
F.6    Special Methods of Enforcement    
F.7    Prosecution in Drug Cases     
F.8    Sentencing 

Appendix G    Opiate Maintenance
G.1    Methadone Control Program of the Government of Canada    
G.2    Some Aspects of the "British System"    

Appendix H    Treatment Capacity in the Provinces

Appendix I    Treatment of Opiate Dependents in Federal Penitentiaries in   

Appendix J    Probation for Heroin Dependents in Canada   

Appendix K    Parole of Heroin Dependents in Canada     

Appendix L    Civil Commitment in California       

Appendix M    Innovative Services     

Appendix N    Commissioners and Staff

Appendix 0    Contract Researchers and Consultants       

Appendix P    Organizations and Individuals Who Presented Submissions 

Appendix Q    Schedule of the Commission's Public Hearings

Appendix R    Commission Research Projects