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Books - Drugs & The Public
Written by Norman Zinberg   


CHAPTER 1
1. Boston Globe, news item, 1969.
2. The Federal Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs official figures for 1970 were only 60,- 000 to 70,000 addicts in the United States. These figures were obtained by police and other officials filling out forms wheneter they came into contact with an addict. Under present circumstances these figures are considered low, and Mr. Edward Kass, Deputy Director of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, felt the 200,- 000'figure more accurate.
3. Blum, Richard H., Students and Drugs, San Francisco, JosseyBass, 1969.
4. Packer, Herbert, The Limits of the Criminal Sanction, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1968.
Goode, Erich, The Marihuana Smokers, New York, Basic Books, 1970.
5. Mesthenes, Emanuel, Director, Center for the Study of Science and Technology, Harvard University, personal communication.
6. Weil, A. T., Zinberg, N. E., and Nelson, J. M., "Clinical and Psychological Effects of Marihuana in Man," Science, Vol. 162, Dec. 13, 1968.
7. Merton, Robert, Social Theory and Social Structure, New York, The Free Press, 1957.
8. Ibid.
CHAPTER 2
1. Time, May 16, 1969.
2. Boston Globe, June 25, 1969.
3. International Times, Vol. 34, June 28–July 11, 1968.
4. Laing, R. D., The Politics of Experience, New York, Ballantine, 1968.
Laing R. D., Self and Others, New York, Pantheon, 1970.
5. Geber, B., Pearson, J. F., and Tutton, C. B., "Students, Apprentices and Drugs," London School of Economics, Drug Project, July 1969.
Geber, B., Tutton, C., and Pearson, J., "Drug Users and Peer Attitudes Amongst University Students and Industrial Apprentices," London School of Economics, Drug Project, July 1969.
6. Delong, James V., et al., Ford Foundation, Drug Abuse Research Project, Aug. 1970.
7. Tauro, G. Joseph, "Marijuana and Relevant Problems-1969," American Criminal Law Quarterly.
265
266    NOTES
8. New York Times, January 8-12, 1968.
9. Time, Sept. 26, 1969.
10. Newsweek, Sept. 7, 1970.
11. Look, Feb. 1970.
12. Life, Oct. 31, 1969.
13. Boston Globe, Jan. 4-8, 1971.
14. Pet, Donald D., and Ball, John
C., "Marijuana Smoking in the U.S.," Federal Probation, Sept. 1968.
15. Blum, Richard H., Students and Drugs, San Francisco, JosseyBass, 1969.
16. Bloomquist, Edward R., Marijuana, Beverly Hills, Glencoe Press, 1968.
17. Paton, W. D. M., "Cannabis: The Unexplored Dangers," Oxford Mail, Jan. 14, 1969.
18. Kaplan, John, Marijuana, The New Prohibition, New York, The World Publishing Co., 1970.
19. Goodman, Louis S., and Gilman, Alfred, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, New York, Macmillan, 1970.
20. Mass. Dept. of Education, Framingham, Mass., May 14, 1967.
21. Zinberg, N. E., and Lewis, D. C., "Narcotic Usage: I. A Spectrum of a Difficult Medical Problem,"
New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 270, May 7, 1964.
22. Zinberg, N. E., Preliminary Survey Report, Amsterdam, May 1969.
Cohen, H., "Psychology, Social-Psychology and Sociology of Illicit Drug Use," University of Amsterdam, Sept. 1969.
23. The Scourge of Narcotics, Spring 3100 at 7 (Dec. 1958), quoted by Richard Kuh, Dealing with Narcotics Addiction, Part One, The New York Law Journal,
June 8, 1960, quoted in El-
dridge, W. B., Narcotics and the
Law, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1962.
24. Gerard, D. L., and Kornestsky, C., "Adolescent Opiate Addiction: A Study of Control and Addict Subjects," Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol. 29, 1955.
Hill, H. E., Haertzen, C. A., and Glaser, R., "Personality Characteristics of Narcotic Addicts as Indicated by the
MMPI," Journal of General Psychology, Vol. 62, 1960.
Alksne, H., et al., "A Follow-Up Study of Treated Adolescent Narcotic Users," New York: unpublished report of Columbia University School of Public Health and Admin. Med., 1959, quoted in Vaillant, G., "A Twelve-year Follow-Up of New York Narcotic Addicts. III. Some Social and Psychiatric Characteristics," Archives of General Psychology, Vol. 15, 1966.
Crime and Delinquency in California, Bureau of Criminal Statistics, State of California,
1967.
25. Report of the Indian Hemp Drug Commission, 1893-94, re-
printed, Silver Spring, Md., Thomas Jefferson Publishing Co., 1969.
26. Mayor's Committee on Marijuana, The Marijuana Problem in the City of New York, Lancaster, Cattell, 1944.
27. Blum, Richard H., Students and Drugs, San Francisco, JosseyBass, 1969.
28. Blummer, Herbert, et al., Add Center Project Final Report: The World of Youthful Drug
Use, Berkeley, Univ. of Cal., 1967.
NOTES    267
29. Crime and Delinquency in California, Bureau of Criminal Statistics, State of California, 1967.
30. Kaplan, John, Marijuana, The New Prohibition, New York, World Publishing Co., 1969.
31. Tauro, op. cit.
32. Isbell, H., "What to Know About Drug Addiction 2," Public Health Service Pub. No. 94, 1951.
33. Vaillant, G. E., "Drug Dependence and Alcohol Problems, A Twelve Year Follow-Up of New York Narcotic Addicts," American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 122, Jan. 1966.
Vaillant, G. E., "A Twelve Year Follow-Up of New York Narcotic Addicts III, Some Social and Psychiatric Characteristics," Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 15, 1966.
34. Myerson, D. J., and Mayer, J., "The Drug Addict," The Practice of Community Mental Health,
Boston, Little, Brown, 1970.
35. Zinberg, N. E., and Weil, Andrew T., "A Comparison of Marijuana Users and Non-Users," Nature, Vol. 226, No. 5241, April 11, 1970.
36. Smith, David, ed., "An Analysis of Marijuana Toxicity," The
New Social Drug, Cultural, Medical and Legal Perspectives on Marijuana, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1970.
37. Geber, B., Sharpe, S., and Bur-ski, D., "The Drug Squad at New Scotland Yard, A Study of Role and Attitude to Illegal Drug Use," London School of Economics, Drug Project, July 1969.
38. Geber, B., and Turner, S., "The Authoritarian Role of Doctors in Non-Medical Drug Use," Lon-
don School of Economics, Drug Project, July 1969.
39. Becker, Howard, "History, Culture and Subjective Experience: An Elaboration of the Social Bases of Drug-Induced Experience," Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 8, 1967.
CHAPTER 3
1. Zinberg, N. E., and Weil, A. T., "A Scientific Report—The Effects of Marijuana on Human Beings," The New York Times Magazine, May 11, 1969.
2. Andrews, H. L., and Himmelsbach, C. K., Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Vol. 81, 1944.
3. Zinberg, N. E., and Lewis, D. C., "Narcotic Usage. I. A Spectrum of a Difficult Medical Problem," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 270, May 7, 1964.
Lewis, D. C., and Zinberg, N. E., "Narcotic Usage. II. A Historical Perspective on a Difficult Medical Problem," New
England Journal of Medicine,
Vol. 270, May 14, 1964.
Isbell, H., and Fraser, H. F., "Addiction to analgesics and barbiturates," Pharmacological Review, Vol. 2, 1950.
Kolb, L. "Pleasure and deterioration from narcotic addiction," Mental Hygiene, Vol. 9, 1925.
Lasagna, L., VonFelsinger, J. M., and Bucher, H. K., "Drug-induced mood changes in man,"
Journal of the American Medi-
cal Association, Vol. 157, 1955.
4. Eddy, N. B., Halbach, H., Isbell, H., and Seevers, M. H., "Drug
288    NOTES
Dependence: Its Significance and Characteristics," Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 9. 32, 1965.
5. Kolb, L. C., ed., Noyes' Modern Clinical Psychiatry, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders, 1968.
Henderson and Gillispie, A
Text-Book of Psychiatry, New
York, Oxford University Press, 1927.
English, O. Spurgeon, and Finch, Stuart M., Introduction to Psychiatry, New York, W. W. Norton, 1964. 10,
Gregory, Ian, Fundamentals of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders, 1968.
Nodine, John H., ed., and Moyer, John H., Psychosomatic Medicine, Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1962.
Skottowe, Ian, Clinical Psychiatry for Practitioners and Students, London, Eyre & Spolliswoode, 1953.
6. Glover, Edward, "On Drug Addiction," International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 3/31, 1932.
Masters, R. E. L., and Houston, J., The Varieties of Psychedelic Experience, New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966.
Moraes, A. O., "The Criminogenic Action of Cannabis and Narcotics," Bulletin on Narcotics, 16/4, 1964.
Limentani, A., "On Drug Dependence: Clinical Appraisal,"
International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 49/4, 1968.
7. Keniston, K., "Tasters, Seekers and Heads," American Scholar, Summer, 1968.
8. Geber, Beryl A., "Non-Dependent Drug Use: Some Psychological Aspects," Scientific Basis of Drug Dependence, ed. by H.
Steinberg, London, J. & H. Churchill, Ltd., 1969.
Geber, B., Pearson, J. F., and Tutton, C. B., "Students, Apprentices and Drugs," London School of Economics, Drug Project, July 1969.
Geber, B., Tutton, C., and Pearson, J., "Drug Users and Peer Attitudes Amongst University Students and Industrial Apprentices," London School of Economics, Drug Project, July 1969.
Zinberg, N. E., and Weil, A. T., "A Comparison of Marijuana Users and Non-Users," Nature, Vol. 226, No. 5241, April 11, 1970.
Chein, Isador, et al., The Road to H, New York, Basic Books, 1964.
Ibid.
Steam, Gerald E., McLuhan: Hot and Cool, New York, Dial Press, 1967.
McLuhan, Marshall, Understanding Media, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1964.
Zinberg and Weil, Nature, op. cit.
Erikson, Erik H., Childhood "and Society, New York, W. W. Norton, 1950; Insight and Responsibility, New York, W. W. Norton, 1964; Identity, Youth and Crisis,
New York, W. W. Norton, 1968. Goffman, E., Asylums, Garden City, Doubleday, 1961. Castaneda, The Teachings of Don Juan, University of California, 1969.
I Ching, trans. by Wilhelm, Bollingen Foundation, 1950. Bibring, Grete, L., Bulletin of the World Federation of Mental Health, Jan. 1952.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
NOTES    269
CHAPTER 4
1. Boston Globe, editorial, Jan. 17, 1971.
2. Boston Globe, Jan. 4-8, 1971.
3. Weil, Andrew T., Zinberg, N. E., and Nelsen, Judith M., "Clinical and Psychological Effects of Marihuana in Man," Science, Vol. 162, Dec. 13, 1968.
Weil, Andrew T., and Zinberg, Norman E., "Acute Effects of Marihuana on Speech," Nature, Vol. 222, No. 5192, May 3, 1969.
Zinberg, Norman E., and Weil, Andrew T., "Cannabis: The First Controlled Experiment," New Society, Jan. 16, 1969.
Zinberg, Norman E., and Weil, Andrew T., "A Comparison of Marijuana Users and Non-Users," Nature, Vol. 226, No. 524, April 11, 1970.
Zinberg, Norman E., and Weil, Andrew T., "The Effects of Marihuana on Human Beings," The New York Times Magazine, May 11, 1969.
4. Science, Letters to the Editor, Vol. 163, Dec. 28, 1968.
5. Narure, Letters, Vol. 222, No. 5194, May 17, 1969. Nature, Letters, Vol. 226, No. 526, April 25, 1970.
6. The New York Times Magazine, Letters to the Editor, June 8, 1969.    22.
7. Smart, R. G., and Bateman, K., "The Chromosomal and Terato- 23. genic Effects of Lysergic Acid 24. Diethylamide: A Review of the Current Literature," Canadian Medical Association Journal
Vol. 99, pp. 805-810, Oct. 26,    25.
1968.
8. National Institute of Mental Health, Special Report, "Drug 26.
Abuse," issued for in-house consumption and not for general distribution, Nov. 1969.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Krantz, J. T., Carr, Jelloff, and LaDu, Burt N., The Pharmacological Principles of Medical Practice, 7th ed., Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1969.
NIMH, op. cit.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Grinspoon, Lester, Marijuana Reconsidered, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1971. Gautier, Théophile, "Le Club des Hachichins," trans. by Gladstone, R. K., in Solomon, D., ed., The Marihuana Papers, Indianapolis, Panther, 1966.
Ludlow, F. H., The Hasheesh
Eater: Being Passages from the
Life of a Pythagorean, New
York, Harper & Row, 1957. Baudelaire, C., "Les Paradis Artificiels," trans. by P. Hedlom in Crepet, M. J., ed., Oeuvres Complètes de Charles Baudelaire, Paris, Pouletmilassis, 1928. DeQuincey, T., Confessions of an English Opium Eater.
Ellis, H., "Mescal, A New Arti-
ficial Paradise," Annual Report
of the Smithsonian Institution,
1898.
Leary, T., interview, Playboy, Sept. 1966.
Weil et al., Science, op. cit.
Mandell, A. J., and Spooner,
C. E., "Psychochemical Research
Studies in Man," Science, Vol.
162, 1968.
Blum, Richard H., Students and Drugs, San Francisco, JosseyBass, 1969.
NIMH, op. cit.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
270    NOTES
27. Gordetzky, Charles W., "Marihuana, LSD, and Amphetamines," Drug Dependence, National Institute of Mental Health, Oct. 1970, No. 5.
28. Isbell, H., Gordetzky, C. W., Jasinski, D., Claussen, V., V. Spulak, F., and Korte, F., "Effects of (-) delta9-transtetrahydrocannabinol in man," Psychopharmacologia, Vol. 11, pp. 184-88, 1967.
29. Gordetzky, op. cit.
30. NIMH, op. cit.
31. Ibid.
32. Ibid.
33. Gordetzky, op. cit.
34. Berger, H., and Krantz, J., Maryland State Psychiatric Research Center in Cantonsville (in press). Harvey Berger, a student, began with the hypothesis that cannabinol, a structural analog of delta-9-THC and believed to be relatively inactive, could block delta-9-THC and that cannabinol alone at 5 and 10 mg/ kg had no effect on pentobarbital sleeping time, but that those doses, as well as at 50 mg/kg, were able to block the delta-9- THC potentiation of sleeping time. He also noted that distinct behavioral alterations with all three doses of cannabinol indicated that this marijuana fraction is not inactive.
35. Isbell et al., op. cit.
36. Grinspoon, op. cit.
37. Walton, R. P., Marihuana: American's New Drug Problem,
Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1938.
38. Grinspoon, op. cit.
39. "Effects of Alcohol and Cannabis During Labor," J.A.M.A., Vol. 94, p. 1165, 1930.
40. Allentuck, S., and Bowman, K. M., "The Psychiatric Aspects
of Marijuana Intoxication,"
American Journal of Psychiatry,
Vol. 99, 1942.
41. Life, "Narcotics," July 19, 1943.
42. Walton, op. cit.
43. Winick, C., "The Use of Drugs by Jazz Musicians," Social Problems, Vol. 7, 1960.
44. NIMH, op. cit.
45. Boston Globe, Gallup Poll, Boston, Mass., Jan. 17, 1971.
46. NIMH, op. cit.
47. Gordetzky, O. cit.
48. Ibid.
49. Freud, Sigmund, "On the General Effects of Cocaine," Medizinische Chirurgie Zentralblatt,
Vol. 20(32), pp. 374-75r Aug. 1885.
50. Ibid.
51. Ibid.
52. Ibid.
53. Ibid.
54. NIMH, op. cit.
55. Weil, "The Pharmacology • of Consciousness-Altering Drugs,"
O. cit.
56. Zinberg, N. E., and Lewis, D., "Amphetamine Use in the Out-Patient Department of a General Hospital," unpublished manuscript.
"AMA Council on Drugs, Abuse of the Amphetamines and Pharmacologically Related Substances," J.A.M.A., Vol. 183, 1963.
Kramer, J. C., Fischman, U. S., and Littlefield, D. C., "Amphetamine Abuse," .A .M.A., Vol. 201, 1967.
57. Gordetzky, op. cit.
58. Schultes, R. E., Psychedelic Review, Vol. I, No. 2, Fall 1963.
59. NIMH, op. cit.
60. Ibid.
61. Krantz et al., op. cit.
Report prepared for the Presi-
NOTES    271
CHAPTER 5
dent's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice by Arthur D. Little. (ADL)
62. Kolb, L., and DuMez, B., "The Prevalence and Trend of Drug Addiction in the U.S. and Factors Influencing It," Public Health Report, Mar. 23, 1924.
63. Krantz, op. cit.    3.
ADL, op. cit.    4.
64. Kolb, et al., op. cit.
65. ADL, op. cit.
66. Goodman, Louis S., and Gill-
man, Alfred, New York, Mac-    5.
millan, 4th ed., 1970.    6.
67. Ibid.
68. Ibid.
69. Essig, C., "Drug Dependence of the Barbiturate Type," Drug Dependence, NIMH, No. 5, Oct. 1970.
70. Isbell, H., et al., "Chronic Barblturate Intoxication: An Experiment," A.M.A. Archives of Neurology and Psychology, Vol. 64, 1950.
71. Essig, op. cit.    12.
72. Ibid.
73. Committee on Alcoholism and
Addiction Report, LA .M.A.,    13.
Vol. 197, 1966.    14.
74. Ibid.
75. Goodman et al., op cit.    15.
76. Essig, op. cit.    16.
77. NIMH, op. cit.
78. Weil, Andrew T., "Altered States of Consciousness Drugs and Society," report for Ford Foundation.
Cohen, S., The Beyond    17.
Within: The LSD Story, New 18. York, Atheneum, 1964.
Lake, A., "Drugs, a Student Report," Seventeen, Sept., 1966.
Leary, T., interview, Playboy, Sept. 1966.
1.
2.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
New York Times, March 30, 1970.
Schur, Edwin M., Narcotic Addiction in Britain and America: The Impact of Public Policy, London, Tavistock, 1963, pp. 76-77.
Ibid., pp. 81-85.
"Drug Addiction," Report of the Interdepartmental Committee, London, H.M.S.O., 1961, p. 16.
Ibid.
"Drug Addiction," The Second Report of the Interdepartmental Committee, London, H.M.S.O., 1965, p. 5.
Ibid., p. 6.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid., p. 6.
Glatt, Max M., et al., The Dru Scene in Great Britain, London, Edward Arnold, Ltd., 1967, pp. 24-25.
The Second Report of the In-
terdepartmental Committee, op.
cit.
Ibid., p. 10.
Ibid., p. 13. Dangerous Drugs Act of 1967, Sections 1, 2.
Ibid.
Television interview taped for the BBC by Mr. Richard Kershaw, Summer 1968. The authors are indebted to Mr. Kershaw for a transcript of the interview.
Look, April 7, 1970, p. 41.
The Rehabilitation of Drug Offenders, Report of the Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence, London, H.M.S.O., 1968,
13. 7.
19. Glatt, op. cit., p. 29.
272    NOTES
20. Sunday Times, September 23, 1968, p. 1.
21. The Guardian, March 10, 1969,
p. 14.
22. Jones, Terence, Drugs and the Police, London, Butterworths, 1968, p. 12.
23. Silberman, Martin, Aspects of Drug Addiction, London, Royal London Prisoners' Aid Society, 1967, p. 103.
24. The Guardian, June 27, 1969.
25. Statement of Mr. Alexander Mitchell of the Sunday Times, St. Anne's Church, Soho, London, June 1969.
26. Reported in Hansard, Jan. 27, 1969, p. 965.
27. The article appeared in News of the World in the summer of 1967. Interview with Mr. Stephen Abrams.
28. Daily Telegraph, Oct. 18, 1968,
p. 1.
29. The Guardian, April 27, 1970.
30. New York Times, Jan. 5, 1971.
31. Glatt, op. cit., p. 21.
32. Daily Telegraph, Feb. 26, 1969.
33. Gusfield, Joseph, "On Legislating Morals: The Symbolic Process of Deviant Designation," 50 California Law Review, 61 (1968).
34. Nuttall, Jeff, Bomb Culture, New York, Delacorte-Dell, 1969.
35. Hansard, July 28, 1967, p. 1155.
36. See for example Glatt, M. M., "A Review of the Second Report 'of the Interdepartmental Committee on Addiction," Bulletin on Narcotics, Vol. 18, No. 2, April-June, 1966.
37. Dangerous Drugs Act of 1965, Section 16.
38. The provisions of the Drugs (Prevention of Misuse) Act of 1964 do not apply in barbiturates.
39. Cannabis, Report by the Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence (hereinafter referred to as "Wootton Report"), London, H.M.S.O., 1968, p. 23.
Powers of Arrest and Search in Relation to Drug Oflenses,
Report by the Advisory Com-
mittee on Drug Dependence,
London, H.M.S.O., 1970, p. 16.
40. Wootton Report, p. 20.
41. Ibid., p. 2.
42. Ibid., p. 7.
43. Ibid., pp. 12-13.
44. Ibid., pp. 16-17.
45. Ibid., p. 28.
46. Ibid.
47. Ibid., p. 20.
48. Daily Express, Jan. 8, 1969, p. 1.
49. Daily Mail, Jan. 8, 1969, p. 1.
50. Daily Sketch, Jan. 8, 1969, p. 1
51. Evening News, Jan. 8, 1969, p. 1.
52. Daily Sketch, op. cit.
53. Daily Telegraph, Jan. 12, 1969, p. 6.
54. Hansard, Jan. 27, 1969, p. 955.
55. Ibid., p. 965.
56. Ibid., p. 967.
57. The Times, Jan. 28, 1969.
58. Hansard, op. cit., p. 962.
59. Ibid., p. 59.
60. Hawks, D. V., "The Dimensions of Drug Dependence in the United Kingdom," 6 Int. Journal of Addictions (1971), p. 140.
61. See references in note 39, supra. London Times, Sept. 19, 1970, p. 1.
62. Daily Telegraph, Aug. 10, 1968, p. 1.
63. The Times, Aug. 15, 1968, p. 8.
64. Skolnick, Jerome, Justice Without Trial, New York, John Wiley, 1966, p. 18.
65. Fiedler, Leslie, Being Busted, New York, Stein & Day, 1970.
NOTES    273
66. Powers of Arrest and Search in Relation to Drug Offenses, pp. 73-74.
67. Wootton Report, p. 33.
68. Statement by the National Council on Civil Liberties before the Deedes Sub-Committee of the Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence.
69. Powers of Arrest and Search in Relation to Drug Offenses, pp. 24-28.
70. Ibid., p. 30.
71. Ibid., p. 57.
72. Ibid., pp. 41-42.
73. Ibid.
74. Ibid., p. 77.
75. Hansard, op. cit., p. 965.
76. The Times, March 27, 1969, p. 1.
77. The Observer, March 15, 1970,
P. 9-
78. The Times, July 27, 1970, p. 1.
79. New Statesman, Nov. 30, 1968,
p. 18.
CHAPTER 6
1. 9B Uniform Laws Annotated 409-10 (Table of States).
2. Massachusetts General Laws 94 § 187 is typical of states' "harmfurfdrug statutes. See the Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965, Public Law 87-74, 79 Stat. 226, 87th Cong. (1965) for the comparable federal provisions.
3. Commonwealth v. Leis, unreported opinion of the Superior Court of Massachusetts.
4. The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 alters these penalties in several respects. 8 Criminal Law Reporter 3015, Oct. 28, 1970.
5. Controlled Substances Act, Sections 408, 409.
6. People v. Shannon, 15 Ill. 2d 494. People v. Aldridge 19 Ill. 2d 176.
7. Eldridge, William, Narcotics and the Law, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1962.
8. Report by the Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence, (the "Wootton Report"), London, H.M.S.O., 1968.
9. Narcotics Control Act of 1956.
10. Eldridge, Ibid.
11. Kaplan, John, Marijuana: The New Prohibition, New York and Cleveland, The World Publishing Co., 1970, p. 324.
12. Ibid.
13. Rotenberg, Daniel L., and Sayer, John W., "Marijuana in the Houston High Schools-"A First Report," 6 Houston Law Review, 1969.
14. Report of Committee on Criminal Law of the Massachusetts Bar Association on Proposed Amendment of Criminal Drug Penalties, 1970.
15. Skolnick, Jerome, "Coercion to Virtue," 41 University of Southern California Law Review, 624 (1968).
16. Jackson, Bruce, "The Next Best Thing: New York's Concentration Camps" (unpublished paper).
17. Kramer, Stanley, "Uncivil Commitment," 50 Boston University Law Journal, pp. 10, 16 (1970).
18. Lindesmith, Alfred, The Addict and the Law, Bloomington, University of Indiana Press, 1965,
P- 3-
19. Becker, Howard, The Outsiders, New York, Free Press, 1963, p. 135.
20. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Taxation, U.S. Senate, 1937.
274    NOTES
21. Taxation of Marijuana (Hearings before the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, 75th Congress, 1st Session).
22. Ibid.
23. Ibid.
24. Mandel, J., "Who Says Marijuana Use Leads to Heroin Addiction," 43 Journal of Secondary Education, 1968.
25. Wootton Report, p. 12.
26. Commonwealth v. Leis, 355 Mass. 189, 1969.
27. Ibid.
28. Ibid.
29. Ibid.
30. Crancer, Alfred, et al., "A Comparison of the Effects of Marijuana and Alcohol on Simulated Driving Performance," Science, Vol. 164, 1969.
31. William McGlothin, "Toward a Rational View of Hallucinogenic Drugs," presented at the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Drug Education Conference, Washington, D.C., Nov. 7-8, 1966.
32. Wilner, Daniel, and Kassebaum, Gene, eds., Narcotics, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1965, p. 33.
33. Eldridge, op. cit.
34. Lindesmith, op. cit.
35. Ibid.
36. Ibid.
37. Ibid.
38. Mandel, J., "Problems with Official Drug Statistics," 22 Stanford Law Review, 991, May 1969.
39. Dangerous Drug Act of 1967, 82 Elizabeth II 4.
40. Eldridge, op. cit.
41. New York Times, May 16, 1970.
42. Skolnick, Jerome, Justice Without Trial, New York, John Wiley, 1966, p. 161.
43. Kaplan, op. cit., Tauro, op. cit.
44. Fuller, Lon, The Morality of Law, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1964, pp. 5-6.
45. Packer, Herbert, The Limits of the Criminal Sanction, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1969, p. 265.
46. Gusfield, Joseph, Symbolic Crusade, Urbana, University of Illinois, 1963.
47. Lawrence Grauman, "The Pot Dilemma," The New Leader, February 26, 1968.
48. Blum, Richard, et al., The Utopiates, New York, Atheneum, 1964, p. 241.
CHAPTER 7
1. Lowes, Peter D., The Genesis of International Narcotics Control, Geneva, Libraire Droz, 1966.
2. New York Times, June 21, 1970.
3. Ibid.
4. New York Times, Sept. 23, 1969.
5. Cleaver, Eldridge, Soul on Ice, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1968, p. 4.
6. New York Times, March 24, 1969.
7. Village Voice, July 23, 1970, p. 5.
8. 'Smith, David, ed., "An Analysis of Marijuana Toxicity," in Mari-
juana: The New Social Drug,
Cultural, Medical and Legal
Perspectives on Marijuana,
Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1970, p. 8.
9. Ibid., p. 71.
10. Massachusetts General Laws, C.94 §212B.
11. New York Times, Feb. 27, 1970.
12. Kaplan, John, Marijuana, The New Prohibition, New York and Cleveland, The World Publishing Co., 1970, pp. 37-38.
NOTES    275
13. Zinberg, Norman, "Rehabilita- 33. tion of Heroin Users in Vietnam," p. 34 (unpublished).
14. Goode, Erich, "Multiple Drug Use    Among    Marijuana 34.
Smokers," Social Problems, 35. Summer 1969, p. 54.
15. Ibid.
16. Boston Globe, July 1, 1970.
17. New York Times, Feb. 11, 1970.
18. Ibid.    36.
19. New York Times, Jan. 20, 1970.
20. U.S. Bureau of the Budget, The Budget of the United States
Government, Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office,    37.
1965-70.
21. Miller, Donald (chief counsel to Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs), letter to the Yale Law Journal, Jan. 6, 1969. Re-    38.
poged in 78 Yale Law Journal, 39. 1969, pp. 1180-81.
22. New York Times, Oct. 11, 1970.    40.
23. Kaplan, op. cit.
24. "Marijuana Laws, An Empirical 41. Study of Enforcement and Ad- 42. ministration in Los Angeles 43. County," 15 UCLA Law Review,
1968.    44.
25. New York Times, Feb. 27, 1970.
26. New York Times, July 1, 1970.
27. Kaplan, op. cit.
28. Rotenberg, Daniel L., and Sayer, John W., "Marijuana in the Houston High School-A First Report," 6 Houston Law Review, 759, 775 (1969).
29. UCLA Law Review, op. cit.
30. New York Times, Aug. 6, 1970.
31. Packer, Herbert, The Limits of the Criminal Sanction, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1968, pp. 151-52.
32. Skolnick, Jerome, Justice Without Trial, New York, John 52. Wiley, 1966, p. 144.
Chevigny, Paul, Police Power:
Police Abuses in New York
City, New York, Pantheon, 1969,
p. 187.
Defendant's brief, pp. 7-8. Barlow, Sarah, "Patterns of Arrests for Misdemeanor Narcotics Possession: Manhattan Police Practices, 1960-62," 4 Criminal Law Bulletin, Dec. 1968. Younger, J., in People v. McMurty, Vol. 64 Misc. 2d. 63 at 64-5. See also People v. Clothilda Berrios et al., 28 N.Y. 2d-1971.
Smith, G. R. W., "Possession of Marijuana in San Mateo County: Some Social Costs of Criminalization," 22 Stanford Law Review, 1970, pp. 100-101.
New York Times, Dec. 22, 1970.
Harvard v. Commonwealth, 356
Mass. Adv. Sh. 1341, 1970. Rotenberg and Sayer, op. cit.,
pp. 759, 765, 766-67, 782-83. Ibid., pp. 759, 765.
New Yorker, June 27, 1970. New York Times, June 7, July 24, 1970.
Boston Globe, July 9, 1970; Village Voice, July 23, 1970.
The Nation, Sept. 23, 1969, pp. 271-72.
New York Times, Sept. 25, 1969. Ibid., p. 30.
New York Times, July 2, 1971,
P. 1.
Ibid., Sept. 25, 1969. Lindesmith, Alfred R., The Addict and The Law, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1966, pp. 37-38.
Ginsberg, Allen, "First Manifesto to End the Bringdown," The Marihuana Papers, New York, Signet, 1968.
Fiedler, Leslie, Being Busted,
New York, Stein & Day, 1970.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
276    NOTES
53. Lindesmith, O. cit., pp. 88-89.
54. Ibid.
55. Kaplan, op. cit.
56. Village Voice, Feb. 26, 1970.
57. 15 UCLA Law Review, 1505, (Foreword by John Kaplan).
58. Rotenberg and Sayer, op. cit., pp. 759, 768.
59. Fort, Joel, The Pleasure-Seekers, Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1969, p. 220.
60. Fiedler, op. cit.
61. Boston Herald Traveler, Dec. 5, 1969.
62. Harvard Crimson, Oct. 5, 1967.
CHAPTER 8
1. Jones, Ernest, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, Vol.
III, New York, Basic Books, 1957.
2. Newsweek, Sept. 7, 1970.
Kaplan, John, Marijuana, The New Prohibition, New York and Cleveland, The World Publishing Co., 1970.
3. New Society, April 11, 1968.
4. Kramer, John, "Uncivil Commitment," 50 Boston University Law Journal, 1970.
5. Medical World News, March 22, 1968.
6. Dole, Vincent, "Research on Methadone Maintenance Treat-
ment," The International Journal of the Addictions, Vol. 5(3), 1970.
7. Washington Post, Oct. 21, 1969. Included in this alternative are all fines, whether labeled "civil" or "criminal."
8. Daily Sketch, Jan. 8, 1969: The Guardian, Jan. 10, 1969; Daily Telegraph, Jan. 9, 1969.
9. Dunbar, Ian, "Cannabis and Society," paper given at St. Anne's House, Soho, London, Aug. 31, 1968.
10. The equal-protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, needless to say, would make most social experiments involving locality difficult to initiate.
11. Becker, Howard, "History, Culture, and Subjective Experience: An Exploration of the Social Bases of Drug-Induced Experi-
ence," Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 8, 1967.
12. Isbell, H., Gordetzky, C. W., Jasinsky, D., et al., "Effects of (-) delta-9-Transtetrahydrocannabinol in Man," Psycho pharmacologia (Berlin), Vol. 11, 1967.
13. Zinberg, N. E., and Weil, A. T., "A Comparison of Marijuana Users and Non-Users," Nature, Vol. 226, No. 5241, April 11, 1970.
14. Grinspoon, Lester, "Marijuana," Scientific American, Vol. 221, Dec. 1969.
15. New York Times, editorial, Aug. 30, 1970.
16. National Institute of Mental Health Report on Marihuana, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., July 1970.

 

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